Ch. 6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 6 Deck (90):
1

where is perichondrium found

surrounds cartilages

2

function of perichondrium

resists outward pressure, and functions in growth and repair of cartilage, springs back to original shape

3

what similarities to the different types of cartilages share?

cell type: chondrocyte located in lacunae, matrix contains fiber and jelly like ground substance

4

what type of cartilage is most abundant in the body

hyaline cartilage

5

what do the chondrocyte of hyaline cartilage look like

spherical

6

what type of fibers are found in hyaline cartilage

collagen

7

function of hyaline cartilage

provides support though flexibility

8

what is elastic cartilage mainly composed of

many elastic fibers

9

function of elastic cartilage

able to tolerate repeated bending

10

where in the body can elastic cartilage be found

epiglottis, and cartilage of external ear

11

function of fibrocartilage

resists strong compression and strong tension, intermediate b/t hyaline and elastic cartilage

12

where in the body can fibrocartilage be found

pubic symphysis, menisci of knee, and annulus fibrosis

13

what two ways does cartilage grow?

appositional and interstitial growth

14

appositional growth

chondroblasts in surrounding perichondrium produce new cartilage

15

interstitial growth

chondrocytes w/in cartilage divide and secrete new matrix

16

when does cartilage stop growing?

when the skeleton stops growing

17

what types of tissue does bone contain

bone connective tissue, nervous, blood, cartilage, and epithelial

18

function of bones

support, movement, protection, mineral storage, blood cell formation, and energy metabolism

19

what type of components make up bone tissue and what are their proportions

35% organic components and 65% inorganic components

20

list the type of organic components found in bone

cells, fibers, and ground substance

21

list the types of inorganic components found in bone tissue

mineral salts that invade bony matrix

22

organic components found in bone contribute to what?

flexibility and tensile strength

23

inorganic components found in bone contribute to what?

provide exceptional harness, and resists compression

24

what are the three types of cells in bone that either produce or maintain bone

osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, and osteocytes

25

osteogenic cells

see cells that differentiate into osteoblasts

26

osteoblasts

actively produce and secrete bone matrix (osteoid)

27

osteocytes

keep bone matrix healthy

28

what are osteoclasts and where are they found

w/in bone tissue, responsible for resorption of bone by secreting hydrochloric acid and lysosomal enzymes

29

what are the 4 classifications of bones

long, short, flat, and irregular

30

describe long bones

longer than wide; a shaft plus ends

31

describe short bones

roughly cube-shaped

32

describe flat bones

thin and flattened, usually curved

33

describe irregular bones

various shapes, do not fit into other categories

34

describe compact bone

dense outer layer of bone

35

describe spongy (cancellous) bone

internal network of bone

36

what are trabeculae

little "beams" of bone, open spaces b/t trabecular filled w/ marrow

37

what similarities do flat, short, and irregular bones share apart from long bones

contain bone marrow but no marrow cavity, instead have Diploe (internal spongy bone of flat bones)

38

what are the 3 broad categories of bone markings

projections for muscle attachment, surfaces that form joints, depressions, and openings

39

tuberosity

large rounded projections; may be roughened

40

crest

narrow ridge of bone; usually prominent

41

trochanter

very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process

42

line

narrow ridge of bone; less prominent than a crest

43

tubercle

small rounded projection or process

44

epicondyle

raised area on or above a condyle

45

spine

sharp, slender, often pointed projection

46

process

any bony prominence

47

head

bony expansion carried on a narrow neck

48

facet

smooth, nearly flat articular surface

49

condyle

rounded articular projection, often articulates w/ a corresponding fossa

50

foramen

round or oval opening though a bone

51

groove

furrow

52

fissure

narrow, slitlike opening

53

notch

indentation at the edge of a structure

54

fossa

shallow basin-like depression in a bone, often serving as a n articular surface

55

meatus

canal-like passageway

56

sinus

cavity w/in bone, filled w/ air and lined w/ mucous membrane

57

describe osteons

long cylindrical structures, structurally resemble rings of a tree in cross section

58

function of osteons

support

59

what do osteons contain

lamellae, central canal, perforating canals, canaliculi

60

ossification (osteogenesis)

bone tissue formation

61

intramembranous ossification

membrane bones formed directly from mesenchyme

62

endochondral ossification

other bones develop initially from hyaline cartilage

63

type of bones that develop from endochrondral ossification

all bones except some bones of skull and clavicles

64

in endochondral ossification where are bones modeled

in hyaline cartilage

65

describe epiphyseal plates of growing bones

cartilage organized in stacks, chondroblasts at top divide quickly, pushing epiphysis away from diaphysis which lengthens entire long bone

66

describe the process of growth in the epiphyseal growth areas

older chondrocytes signal surrounding matrix to calcify, then die/disinitegrate, leaves long trabecular (spicules) of calcified cartilage on diaphysis side, trabeculae partly eroded by osteoclasts, osteoblasts cover trabecular w/ bone tissue, trabecular finally eaten away from tips by osteoclasts

67

during childhood and adolescence how do bones lengthen

entirely by growth of the epiphyseal plates, cartilage replaced w/ bone connective tissue as quickly as it grows, epiphyseal plate maintains constant thickness

68

what happens as adolescence draws to an end

chondroblasts divide less often, epiphyseal plates become thinner, cartilage stops growing and replaced by bone tissue

69

when do long bones stop lengthening

when diaphysis and epiphysis fuse

70

osteoblasts role

add bone tissue to external surface of the diaphysis

71

osteoclasts role

remove bone from the internal surface of the diaphysis

72

what is appositional growth

growth of a bone by addition of bone tissue to its surface

73

where is the growth hormone produced

pituitary gland

74

purpose of thyroid hormone

ensures that skeleton retains proper proportions

75

what are the two types of sex hormones

estrogen and testosterone

76

function of sex hormones

promote bone growth, later induces closure of epiphyseal plates

77

how many mg of calcium may enter or leave the adult skeleton each day

500 mg

78

how often is cancellous bone of the skeleton replaced

every 3-4 years

79

how of ten is compact bone replaced?

every 10 years

80

where does bone deposit and removal take place

periosteal and endosteal surfaces

81

how dos osteoclast accomplish its job

crawls along bone surfaces secreting concentrate HCL, lysosomal enzymes are leased to break down bone tissue

82

what is osteoclast derived from

hematopoietic stem cells

83

what is osteoporosis

characterized by low bone mass, bone reabsorption outpaces bone deposition

84

osteomalacia

occurs in adults- bones are inadequately mineralized

85

rickets

occurs in children- analogue to osteomalacia

86

osteosarcoma

form of bone cancer

87

function of mesoderm

gives rise to embryonic mesenchyme cells

88

function of mesenchyme

produces membranes and cartilage

89

until what age does the skeleton grow

18-21

90

during which stages of life does bone formation exceeds rate of bone reabsorption

children and adolescents