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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (36):
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Hindsight Bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it, I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon

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Overconfidence

The tendency to be more confident than correct- to over estimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgements

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Critical Thinking

Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions

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Scientific method

Self correcting process for asking questions and observing natures answer

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Theory

An explanation of using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations

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Hypothesis

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

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Operational Definitions

A statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables It allows us to measure variables

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Replication

Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic findings extends to other participants and circumstances

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Case Study

An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

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Survey

A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attributes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them

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False Consensus Effect

The tendency to over estimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors

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Population

All the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study

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Random Sample

A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

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Naturalistic Observations

Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

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Correlate

A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other

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Scatterplots

Each point plots the value of two variables on a chart/graph

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Illusory Correlation

The perception of a relationship, where non exists

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Experiment

A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (variables) to observe the effect

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Representative Sample

A sample that fairly represents/reflects the population being studied

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Non-representative Sample

A sample that unfairly reflects the population being studied

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Double-Blind Procedure

An experiment where the researcher and patient don't know if the patient is receiving a real treatment or placebo

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Placebo Effect

Experimental results caused by expectations alone; a blank/empty pill, patient thinks it works so thus their positive mind set will make them heal

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Experimental Condition

The condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is to one version of the independent variable

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Control Condition

The condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment

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Random Assignment

Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups

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Independent Variable

The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied

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Dependent Variable

The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

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Mode

The most frequently occurring socre(s) in a distribution

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Mean

The average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and the dividing by the number of scores

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Median

The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are about it, and half of the scores are below it

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Range

The difference between the highest and the lowest scores in a distribution

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Standard Deviation

A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

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Statistical Significance

A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance

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Culture

The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

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Experimenter Bias

The unconscious tendency for researchers to treat members of the experimental and control groups differently to increase the chance of confirming their hypothesis

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Random Assignment

Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups