Chapter 4- First Half Flashcards Preview

Psychology Vocab > Chapter 4- First Half > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 4- First Half Deck (29):
0

Developmental psychology

A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifespan

1

Zygote

The fertilized egg; it enters a two-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo

2

Embryo

The developing human organism from about two weeks after fertilization through the second month

3

Fetus

The developing human organism from nine weeks after conception to birth

4

Teratogens

Agents such as chemicals and viruses, they can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

5

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking

6

Rooting reflex

Hey babies tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn towards the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple

7

Habituation

Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants become familiar with repeated exposure to stimulus, their interest decreases

8

Maturation

Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience

9

Jean Piaget

French Developmental psychologists, created the concept of schemas

10

Schemas

A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

11

Assimilation

Interpreting one's new experiences in terms of one's existing schemas

12

Accommodation

Adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information

13

Cognition

All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

14

Sensorimotor Stage

In Piaget's theory, The stage (from
Birth to two) during which infants, know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

15

Object performance

The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

16

Preoperational stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage ( 2-6/7) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet understand the mental operations of concrete logic

17

Conservation

The principal (Piaget believes as concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and numbers remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

18

Egocentrism

In Piaget's theory, The pre-operational child's difficulty taking another's point of view

19

Theory of mind

Peoples ideas about their own and others' mental states-feelings, perceptions, thoughts, and the behavior of my project

20

Autism

A disorder appearing in childhood marked by deficient communication, social interactions, and understanding of other states of mind

21

Concrete operational stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (6/7-11) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events

22

Formal operational stage

In Piaget's theory the stage of cognitive development (beginning at 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract things

23

Harry Harlow

Looked at attachments with surrogate mothers because of bodily contact not nourishment

24

Stranger anxiety

The fear of strangers that infants commonly display beginning at eight months

25

Mary Ainsworth

Studied attachment differences by observing mom-baby pairs in a home for the first six months

26

Attachment

And emotional tie with another person; shown by young children seeking closeness

27

Secure attachment

Child can play and explore the world comfortably when mom is present, gets distressed when she leaves but seeks body contact when she returns

28

Insecure attachment

The baby explores less, gets upset when mom leaves and remains upset or indifferent when she returns