Chapter 2-First Half Flashcards Preview

Psychology Vocab > Chapter 2-First Half > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 2-First Half Deck (40):
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Phrenology

ill-fated theory that claimed bumps on the skull could reveal our mental abilities and our character traits

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Biological Psychology

A branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior

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Neuron

A nerve cell, the basic building block of the nervous system

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Dendrite

The bushy branching extensions of a neuron that receives messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

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Axon

The extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fivers through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscle glands

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Myelin Sheath

A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fivers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulses hop from one node to the next

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Action Potential

A neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. The action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axons membranes

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Threshold

The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

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Synapse

The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The gap is called the synaptic gap or cleft.
Involved Santiago, and Sherrington

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Neurotransmitter

Chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons

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Acetylcholine, Ach

A neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory, also triggers muscle contraction

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Dopamine

Influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion

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Serotonin

Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal (alertness)
Low levels=depression

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Endorphins

"Morphine within" natural neurotransmitter, linked to pain control and pleasure

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Nervous System

The body's speedy electrochemical communication network, consists of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems

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Central Nervous System

The brain and spinal cord

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Peripheral Nervous System

The sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body

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Nerves

Neural "cables" containing many axons. Bundled axons make up central nervous systems with muscles glands and sense organs

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Sensory Neurons

Neurons that carry incoming info from the sense receptors to the central nervous system

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Motor neurons

Neurons that carry outgoing info from the CNS to the muscles and glands

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Interneurons

CNS neurons that communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs

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Somatic Nervous System

The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles

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Autonomic Nervous System

Controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs

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Sympathetic Nervous System

autonomic nervous system; that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations

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Parasympathetic Nervous System

autonomic nervous system; that calms the body conserving energy

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Reflex

A simple, autonomic, inborn responses to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response

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Lesions

Tissue destruction; brain tissue, sometimes done intentionally

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Neural Networks

Interconnected neural cells

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Endocrine System

The body's chemical communication system, a set of glands that secrete hormones into the blood stream

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Hormones

Chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands

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Adrenal Glands

A pair of endocrine flames just above the kidneys, secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and non-epinephrine (non-adrenaline), helps arouse the body in times of stress

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Pituitary Glands

The endocrine systems most influential gland. Regulates growth, and controls other endocrine glands

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EEG

Electroencephalogram; an amplified recording of waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brains surface

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PET Scan

Position emission tomography; a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

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MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging; magnetic fields and radio waves, images that distinguish different types of soft tissue, focuses on anatomy

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FMRI Scan

Functional magnetic resonance imaging; shows blood flow within the brain, thus revealing brains activity

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Refractory Period

After a neuron fires an action potential it pauses for a short period to recharge itself to fire again

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Norepinephrine

Alertness and arousal, "adrenaline"

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Antagonists

Inhibit neurotransmitters, blocks the receptor site denying the wanted action

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Agonists

This molecule excites, mimics effects on the receiving neuron
Ex, morphine, mimics endorphins