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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (56):
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Sensation

Sensory receptors and nervous system that receives and represents stimulus energies from our environment

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Perception

Process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling use to reconginize meaningful objects and events

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Bottom-up Processing

Analysis that begins with sensory receptors and works up to the brain integration of sensory info, just taking it in

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Top-down Processing

Info processing guided down by higher level mental processes, "learning from experiences" for example, I burnt my hand with a sparkler so now I don't use sparklers

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Prosopagnosia

The failure of perception, complete sensation incomplete perception, related to recognizing faces, the inability to top-down process when related to faces

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Psychophysics

Study of relationships between physical characteristics of stimuli, the intensity, and our psychological experience of them

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Absolute Threshold

Minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus, 50% of the time

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Signal Detection Theory

A prediction theory how/when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus "signal" assumes that detection depends on partly on a person's experience, if they're "trained" to be sensitive to certain things

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Subliminal

Below ones absolute threshold for conscious awareness

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Priming

The activation of certain association areas, predisposing ones perception, memory, or response, often unconscious

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Difference threshold

Minimum difference between two stimulus required to detect them as different for 50% of the time

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Weber's Law

Principle that to be perceived as different, two stimulus must differ by a constant minimum percentage

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Sensory Adaption

Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation

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Transduction

Conversion of one form of energy into another; sights, sounds, smells, into neural impulses our brain can understand

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Wavelength

The distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next

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Hue

The dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light, short wavelength=dark colors

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Intensity

The amount of energy in a light or sound wave, determined by the waves amplitude, how bright or dull it will be

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Pupil

The adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters

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Iris

Ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupils opening

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Lens

Transparent structure behind the pupil that chances shape to help focus images on the retina

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Accommodation

Process by which the eyes lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina

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Retina

Soft sensitive inner surface of the the eyes contains receptor rods plus cones, and neurons that begin the processing visual info

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Acuity

The sharpness of vision

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Nearsightedness

A condition in whoch nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects

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Farsightedness

Far away objects are seen more clearly than near objects

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Rods

Retinal receptors, detect black, white and gray; needed for peripheral and twilight vision

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Cones

Retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina, detect fine detail, give rise to color sensations

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Optic Nerve

A nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain

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Blind Spot

The point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, no receptor cells are located there

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Fovea

The central focal point in the retina, where the eyes cones cluster

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Feature Detectors

Nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of a stimulus such as shape, angle, or movement

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Parallel processing

Processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously, natural mode for info processing for many functions including vision

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Blindsight

Experiencing blindness in part of their field of vision, causes perception to be incomplete

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Young-Helmholtz trichromatic (three-color) theory

Retina contains three receptors, one sensitive to red, one blue, one green, combined we can see any color

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Opponent-process theory

Opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enables color vision

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Color constancy

Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color

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Audition

The sense or act of hearing

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Frequency

The number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time

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Pitch

A tone's experiences highness or lowness, depends on frequency

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Middle Ear

Chamber between the ear drum an cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup), that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochleas oval window

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Cochlea

A coiled bony fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through who he sound waves trigger nerve impulses

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Cilia

Still working

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Inner Ear

The innermost part of the ears containing the cochlea semicircular canals and vestibular sacs

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Place theory

theory linking pitch we hear with place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated, high pitch sounds

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Frequency Theory

In hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense it's pitch, for low pitch sounds

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Conduction hearing loss

Hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound wages to the cochlea

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Sensorineural hearing loss

Hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptors cells or to the auditory nerves

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Cochlear Implant

A device that converts electrical signals and stimulates auditory nerves through electrodes threaded into the cochlea

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Gate-Control Theory

Theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals/allows them to pass on to the brain

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Sensory Interaction

Principle that one sense may influence another

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McGurk Effect

The body's compensation for seeing and hearing two different things

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Olfaction

The sense of smell

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Synaethesia

When one sort of sensation produces another

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Kinesthesia

System for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts

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Vestibular Sense

The sense of body movement and position, in lauding the sense of balance

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Retinas Reaction Order

1) Biopolar 2) Ganglion 3) Optic Nerve 4) Thalamus 5) Visual Cortex