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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (42):
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Perception

Process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling use to reconginize meaningful objects and events

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Selective Attention

The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, the cocktail party effect

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Cocktail Party Effect

The ability to only be able to focus on one voice out of all of the others

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Inattentional Blindness

Failing to see the visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere

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Change Blindness

Lack of awareness of happenings in their visual environment when there is an interruption

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Change Deafness

Failure or notice a change/difference with auditory info

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Choice Blindness

The failure to notice our selection of a particular stimulus has changed

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Choice-Blindness Blindness

Exhibiting denial (blindness) to a falling victim to a hypothetical experiment

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Pop-Out Phenomenon

Strikingly distinct stimulus which draws our eye

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Illusions

A perception, as of visual stimuli (optical illusion), that represents what is perceived in a way different from reality

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Visual Capture

The tendency for vision to dominate the other senses

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Gestalt

An organized whole. Gestalt psychologist emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of info into meaningful wholes

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Figure-Ground

The organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings

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Grouping

The perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups

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Proximity

Grouping nearby figures together

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Similarity

Grouping together figures that are similar to each other

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Continuity

Perceiving smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones

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Connectedness

Uniform and linked

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Closure

Fill in gaps to create complete whole object

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Depth Perception

The ability to see objects in 3-D although the images that strike the retina are 2-D, allows us to judge distance

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Visual Cliff

A laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals

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Binocular Cues

Depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of two eyes

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Retinal Disparity

A binocular cud for perceiving depth: by comparing images from two eyeballs the brain computes distance, the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object

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Convergence

A binocular cue for perceiving depth; the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object. The greater inward staring the closer the object

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Monocular Cues

Depth cues such as interposition and linear perspective, a variable to either eye alone

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Relative Size

Two objects similar in size, if one is smaller it must be further away

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Interposition

If one object partially blocks our view of another, we perceive it as closer

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Relative Clarity

We perceive hazy objects as father away than sharp clear objects

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Texture Gradient

Distinct texture to a fine, in distinct texture signals increasing distance

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Relative Height

We perceive objects higher in our field of vision as being farther away

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Relative Motion

Motion parallax: as we move, objects that aware actually stable may appear to move

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Linear Perspective

Parallel lines appear to converge with distance

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Light and Shadow

Nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes, dimmer objects seem farther away

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Phi Phenomenon

An allusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession

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Stroboscopic Movement

The brain will perceive continuous movement in a rapid series of slightly varying images

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Perceptual Adaptation

In vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field

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Context Effects

The context (environmental factors that surround an event effecting how it is perceived

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Perceptual Set

A mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another

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Schema

Concepts that organize and interpret unfamiliar info

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Human Factors Psychologists

A branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use

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Extrasensory Perception

(ESP) controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input

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Parapsychology

The study of paranormal phenomena including ESP and psychokinesis