chapter 1 Thinking Critically recognition Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > chapter 1 Thinking Critically recognition > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapter 1 Thinking Critically recognition Deck (33):
1

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it (I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon).

hindsight bias

2

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.

critical thinking

3

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.

theory

4

a testable prediction, often implied by a theory.

hypothesis

5

a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, “human intelligence” may be operationally defined as “what an intelligence test measures.”

operational definition

6

repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.

replication

7

an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.

case study

8

a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.

correlation

9

a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1).

correlation coefficient

10

a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation).

scatterplot

11

a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (iv) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dv). By “random assignment” of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.

experiment

12

in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the iv.

experimental group

13

in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

control group

14

assigning participants to experimental and control group by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.

random assignment

15

an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.

Double-blind procedure

16

experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.

placebo effect

17

the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.

independent variable

18

a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment.

confounding variable

19

the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.

dependent variable

20

the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution.

mode

21

the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.

mean

22

the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.

median

23

a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.

statistical significance

24

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.

culture

25

an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.

informed consent

26

the post experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants.

debriefing

27

observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.

naturalistic observation

28

a technique for ascertaining the self-report attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group.

survey

29

all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn. (Note: except for national studies, this does not refer to a country's whole population.)

population

30

a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

random sample

31

the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

range

32

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the means score.

standard deviation

33

a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean (about 68 percent fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer and fewer near the extremes.

normal curve