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91

Smooth Muscle Tissue 

is found in the walls of? (4) 

& muscles that attach/adjust? (3) 

walls of arteries, veins, hollow organs, airways to lungs

muscles that attach to hair follicles, adjust pupil diameter & adjust focus on lens in eye

92

Smooth Muscle contains ...? arrangement?

both thick and thin filaments 

not arranged in sarcomeres

no regular pattern of overlap (not striated) 

contains only small amount of stored Ca2+ 

 

93

In Smooth muscle fibers, thin filaments attach to?

dense bodies & stretch from one dense body to another

94

Dense bodies of smooth muscle tissue

function?

function in same way as Z discs

during contraction, filaments pull on dense bodies causing shorting of muscle fiber

95

Contraction of smooth muscle lasts ____________than skeletal muscle contraction 

initiated by? from?

longer (starts more slowly)

initiated by Ca2+ flow primarily from interstitial fluid & SR

Ca2+ moves slowly out of muscle fiber delaying relaxation 

96

Smooth Muscle

Able to sustain long-term muscle tone because?

Prolonged presence of Ca++ in the cell provides for a state of continued partial contraction 

 

97

Smooth Muscle is imporant in (2)?

Gastrointestinal tract where a steady pressure is maintained on contents of the tract

In walls of blood vessels which maintain a steady pressure on blood 

98

Most smooth muscle fibers contract or relax in response to? (4) 

1) action potentials from autonomic nervous sytem

2) in response to stretching

3) hormones 

4) changes in pH, oxygen & CO2 levels 

99

 Muscles of the body are derived from ____________ 

mesoderm except muscles of iris & arrector pili

 

100

As the mesoderm develops it becomes arranged in dense columns on either side of the developing spinal cord

These columns undergo?

segmentation into a series of cube-shaped structures (somites)

101

The cells of a somite differentiate into (3) regions

 

1) myotome

2) dermatome 

3) scleratome

102

1) myotome

2) dermatome 

3) scleratome

1) Forms skeletal muscles of head, neck, and limbs 

2) Forms the connective tissues, including dermis of skin 

3) gives rise to the vertebrae

103

Cardiac muscle and smooth muscle develop from migrating mesoderm cells that migrate to & envelop developing ___ 

cardiac muscle- migrate to & envelop developing heart while it is still in the form of endocardial heart tubes 

smooth muscle - migrate to & envelop developing gastrointestinal tract & viscera

104

the attachment of a tendon to the stationary bone

origin

105

the attachment of the muscle’s other tendon to the movable bone 

insertion 

106

the main movements of a muscle that occur during contraction

actions

107

 rigid structure (1) that can move around a fixed point (2)

1) lever

2) fulcrum

108

A lever is acted on at two different points by (2) different forces: 

1) effort - causes movement

2) load or resistance - opposes movement

 

109

1) force due to muscular contraction

2) weight that is moved 

1) effort (E) 

2) load or resistance

110

Motion occurs when?

the effort applied to bone at insertion exceeds load.

111

 (3) types of levers that differ on the positions of the fulcrum, effort, and load

first-class levers - fulcrum between effort & load

second-class levers - load between fulcrum & effort

third-class levers - effort between fulcrum & load

112

origin

 

attachement to stationary end of muscle

113

belly (body)

thickerm middle region of muscle

114

insertion

attachement to mobile end of muscle

115

 All muscle fibers are parallel to one another within a single fascicle.

However, fascicles form patterns with respect to tendons (5) 

1) parallel 

2) fusiform

3) circular

4) triangular 

5) pennate

 

116

thick in middle and tapered at ends 

(biceps brachii) 

fusiform

117

parallel fascicles 

(rectus abdominis) 

parallel

118

 broad at origin and tapering to a narrower insertion 

triangular

119

fascicles insert obliquely on a tendon 

multipennate

120

fascicles arranged:

1) only on 1 side of tendon

2) both sides of centrally positioned tendon

 

1) unipennate

2) bipennate