Chapter 10 - Muscular Tissue Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 - Muscular Tissue Deck (193)
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121

ring around body opening

circular

122

prime mover (agonist) 

produces most of force 

contracts & causes action

123

syngergists

aid prime mover (located close) 

stabilizes nearby joint to prevent unwanted movement 

 

124

antagonist

opposes prime mover

preventing excessive movement & injury 

125

fixator

stabilize origin of prime mover 

prevents movement of bone

126

It is common to attribute a specific action at a joint to a single muscle bundle, but muscles do not work in _____________ 

Movements usually result from several skeletal muscles acting as a group. Most skeletal muscles are arranged in _____________ (antagonistic) pairs at joints 

In an opposing muscle pair, one is called the prime mover or agonist and is responsible for the action, while the other muscle called the _____________ stretches and yields to effects of the agonist

 To prevent unwanted _____________ at other joints or to otherwise aid the movement of the agonist, muscles called _____________ contract and stabilize the intermediate joints. 

 Other muscles act as _____________ , stabilizing the origin of the agonist so that the agonist is more efficiently

isolation

opposing

antagonist

movement

synergists

fixators

127

Muscles of facial expression

located?

originate? insert?

lie within subcutaneous layer 

originate in fascia or skull bones

insert into skin

128

Because of their insertions, the muscles of facial expression move the ____________rather than a ____________when they contract. 

skin rather than a joint

129

Facial expression muscles innervated by?

facial (VII) nerve (CN VII) 

130

(6) extrinsic eye muscles control movements of each eyeball. 

(originate on outside of eyeballs in bony orbit & insert on outer surface of sclera)

superior recti

inferior recti

lateral recti

medial recti

superior oblique

inferior oblique

131

superior rectus

moves eye superiorly & medially (elevation & adduction) 

rotates eye medially

132

inferior rectus

moves eye inferiorly (depression) & medially (adduction) & rotates medially

133

lateral & medial rectus

move eye laterally (abduction) & medially (adduction) 

134

inferior oblique

elevation & abduction & rotates laterally

135

superior oblique

depression, abduction & rotates medially 

136

Recti muscles of the eye have obvious actions.

The actions of the (2) oblique eye muscles can't be deduced from their names. 

origin & insertion of oblique eye muscles 

1) superior oblique

origin: sphenoid, superior & medial to tendinous ring in orbit

insertion: between superior & lateral recti (via tendon that passes through trochlea)

2) inferior oblique

origin: maxilla in floor of orbit

insertion: between inferior & lateral recti

137

levator palpebrae superioris

origin, insertion, action

does not move eyeball

origin: roof of orbit

insertion: skin of upper eyelids

actions: elevates upper eyelid (opens eyes) 

138

Muscles of the tongue 

(2) types

1) intrinsic - alter shape of tongue 

2) extrinsic -move tongue, connect tongue to hyoid, styloid process, palate & inside of chin

139

(4) extrinsic muscles of the tongue

 

genioglossus - down & forward

styloglossus - up & backward

Hyoglossus - down & flattens

Palatoglossus - raises posterior portio

 

140

Muscles of Mastication (4) 

Masseter - close mouth

Temporalis - elevate & retract

Medial Pterygoid - elevate, protrude, side to side 

Lateral Pterygoid - protract, depress (open), side to side

141

Muscles of Mastication 

arise from?

insert on? 

arise from temporomandibular joint (TMJ)  insert on mandible 

142

Temporalis and Masseter _________ the mandible 

Medial and Lateral Pterygoids help elevate, but produce ________ swinging of jaw 

close 

side to side

143

The ____________, ____________, and medial ____________account for the strength of the bite.

 The medial and lateral ____________muscles help to chew by moving the mandible from side to side.  Additionally, these muscles protract (protrude) the mandible.  

Masseter, Temporalis & medial pterygoid

pterygoid

144

 swallowing & speech

(2) main muscle groups in the anterior neck

1) suprahyoid - superior to hyoid

2) infrahyoid - inferior to hyoid

145

Both Suprahyoid & Infrahyoid muscles ___ the hyoid bone, allowing it to serve as a firm base on which the __can move.  

stabilize 

tongue

146

Muscles of the neck that move the head 

e head articulates with the vertebral column at joints formed by the ____________& ____________bone. 

atlas & occipital

147

An important landmark (the ____________muscle) divides the sides of the neck into two major triangles: anterior and posterior

Sternocleidomastoid 

148

Muscles of the neck that move the head (5)

sternocleidomastoid

semispinalis capitis

splenius capitis

longissimus capitis

spinalis capitis

149

Muscles of the Abdomen (protect the viscera and move the vertebral column) 

The ____________abdominal wall includes the external oblique, internal oblique, and ____________abdominis muscles which form 3 protective layers around the abdomen

anterolateral 

transversus 

150

The aponeuroses of the external & internal oblique & transversus abdominis form the ____________ which enclose the?

rectus sheaths

rectus abdominis muscles