Chapter 13 - Dermal Toxicology Flashcards Preview

ABT Test > Chapter 13 - Dermal Toxicology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 13 - Dermal Toxicology Deck (36):
0

Which of the following can compromise the stratum corneum barrier and lead to increased penetration of chemicals?

A. Tape stripping

B. psoriasis

C. Acetone exposure

D. All of the above

D. All of the above

1

Which of the following statements are true?

A. The rate of penetration of chemicals across the stratum corneum will always be a first order process

B. skin uptake of airborne chemicals is common for hydrophilic agents

C. Psoriasis is a disease of slow skin turnover

D. None of the above

D. None of the above

2

Which of the following skin areas has the highest permeability

A. Eyelids

B. palms

C. Soles of feet

D. Forehead

A. Eyelids

3

All of the following are true regarding absorption through the epidermal appendages except?

A. Chemicals can bypass the stratum corneum by this route

B. It is more relevant for chronic rather than acute situations

C. It is usually neglected for most chemicals because of the smaller relative surface compared to the stratum corneum

D. In some cases like benzopyrene, absorption through appendages can be primary

B. It is more relevant for chronic rather than acute situations

4

Which of the following agents has the highest skin penetration under normal conditions?

A. Hydrophilic chemicals of high MW

B. Hydrophobic chemicals of high MW

C. Hydrophilic chemicals of low MW

D. Hydrophobic chemicals of low MW

D. Hydrophobic chemicals of low MW

5

Which of the following statements is true regarding systemic exposure through the skin while swimming in chemically-contaminated water?

A. Exposure can occur for some chemicals

B. significant exposure can only occur by swallowing the water

C. Significant exposure can only occur through the nasal mucosa

D. There are no reported cases of significant exposure by this route

A. Exposure can occur for some chemicals

6

80% of eczema dermatitis occurs on the?

A. Face

B. Scalp

C. Hand

D. Chest

C. Hand

7

Common features of both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis include all of the following except?

A. Inflammatory components

B. Distinguishing biopsy characteristics

C. Vesiculation

D. Erythema

B. Distinguishing biopsy characteristics

8

All of the following are advantages of transdermal drug delivery except...

A. A steady infusion rate over long time intervals

B. Variation of infusion rate with body temperature

C. Avoiding first-pass effects

D. Preventing exposure to stomach acid

B. Variation of infusion rate with body temperature

9

All of the following are true of irritant-contact dermatitis except...

A. The reaction can theoretically occur in anyone if the exposure is long enough or the concentration high enough

B. it can sometimes resemble a 2nd degree burn

C. It requires the participation of regional lymph nodes

D. Sensitivity to irritants can have large variations between individuals

C. It requires the participation of regional lymph nodes

10

Granulomatous disease of the skin has been shown to occur during exposure to...

A. Tattoo dyes

B. Beryllium

C. Zirconium compounds

D. All of the above

D. All of the above

11

All of the following are phototoxic drugs/chemicals except...

A. Ampicillin

B. Tetracycline

C. Anthracene

D. 8-methoxypsoralen

A. Ampicillin

12

All of the following are true of UVB radiation except...

A. It induces more erythema in humans compared to UVA

B. It has been implicated in melanoma development

C. Its intensity at the earth's surface is 10x that of UVA

D. It is responsible for most of the tanning process

C. Its intensity at the earth's surface is 10x that of UVA

13

The occupation with the lowest incidence of contact urticaria is...

A. Food handler

B. Office worker

C. Latex glove users

D. Plant and wood handlers

B. Office worker

14

The area of the body with the thickest skin is?

A. Forehead

B. fingertip

C. Back

D. Abdomen

B. fingertip

15

Which of the following body site statements is false?

A. Palms-good physical barrier

B. Eyelids-sensitivity to irritants

C. Axillae-moist, occluded area

D. Soles-poor barrier function

D. Soles-poor barrier function

16

Which of the following statements is true regarding a third-degree chemical burn?

A. The damage does not need to have a primary inflammatory component

B. Immediate coagulative necrosis may occur

C. Necrotic tissue can act as a chemical reservoir with systemic absorption

D. All of the above

D. All of the above

17

All of the following are true regarding skin patch drug delivery except...

A. It is ideal for drugs with short half-lives

B. it is very safe because drug delivery stops once the patch is removed

C. It allows drugs to avoid first-pass metabolism

D. Marketed skin patch drugs include nicotine, clonidine and fentanyl

B. it is very safe because drug delivery stops once the patch is removed

18

All of the following are true of irritant-contact dermatitis except...

A. It accounts for approx 20% of all contact dermatitis

B. It arises from the direct action of a chemical on the skin

C. The response is usually proportional to the dose

D. It can occur from repeated exposure to mild irritants

A. It accounts for approx 20% of all contact dermatitis

19

Allergic contact dermatitis is characterized by...

A. A B cell-mediated hypersensitivity

B. Processing of antigen by the melanocyte

C. A latency period

D. All of the above

C. A latency period

20

Incidents in Seveso, Italy and Taiwan produced outbreaks of...

A. Chloracne

B. Malignant melanoma

C. Urticaria

D. Phototoxic dermatitis

A. Chloracne

21

A direct release of histamine without production of antibodies can be caused by...

A. Thiazide diuretics

B. opiate analgesics

C. Tetracycline antibiotics

D. Tricyclic antidepressants

B. opiate analgesics

22

A drug-induced, life-threatening skin reaction that may result from apoptosis due to stimulation of death receptor pathways is...

A. Anaphylaxis

B. Psoriasis

C. Toxic epidermal necrolysis

D. Xeroderma pigmentation

C. Toxic epidermal necrolysis

23

Psoralens are asso w/ ...

A. Acne

B. Squamous cell carcinoma

C. Phototoxic dermatitis

D. Photoallergic dermatitis

C. Phototoxic dermatitis

24

Arsenic is asso w/....

A. Acne

B. Skin carcinoma

C. Phototoxic dermatitis

D. Photoallergic dermatitis

B. Skin carcinoma

25

Beneficial effects of UV radiation include all of the following except...

A. Production of Vitamin D

B. Treatment of elevated bilirubin in infants

C. Treatment of psoriasis with psoralens

D. Treatment of basal cell carcinoma

D. Treatment of basal cell carcinoma

26

A common contact allergen is...

A. Iron

B. aluminum

C. Cellulose

D. None of the above

D. None of the above

27

Sulfonamides can cross react in allergic-contact sensitization with...

A. Para-aminobenzoic acid

B. phenyl-ethyl ether

C. Propylene glycol

D. Tetracycline

A. Para-aminobenzoic acid

28

The contact sensitizer in poison ivy is...

A. Nitrobenzene

B. pentadecylcatechol

C. Propionic acid

D. Methyl benzoate

B. pentadecylcatechol

29

All of the following are true of the skin except...

A. Phase 1 and Phase 2 drug-metabolizing enzymes are present

B. There are significant interspecies differences in toxicant absorption

C. Active transport takes place in the stratum corneum

D. Cells in the stratum corneum have lost their nucleus

C. Active transport takes place in the stratum corneum

30

Androgens are asso w/ ...

A. Alopecia

B. acne

C. Nail changes

D. Photosensitivity rxns

B. acne

31

Selenium is asso w/ ...

A. Acne

B. fixed drug eruption

C. Contact dermatitis

D. Alopecia

D. Alopecia

32

Neomycin sulfate is asso w/ ...

A. Fixed drug eruption

B. acne

C. Contact dermatitis

D. Nail changes

C. Contact dermatitis

33

Barbituates are asso w/ ...

A. Nail changes

B. fixed drug eruption

C. Photosensitivity rxn

D. Contact dermatitis

B. fixed drug eruption

34

Tetracycline is asso w/ ...

A. Photosensitivity rxn

B. acne

C. Nail changes

D. Contact dermatitis

A. Photosensitivity rxn

35

Arsenic is asso w/ ....

A. Contact dermatitis

B. Nail changes

C. Alopecia

D. Acne

B. Nail changes