Chapter 21 - Pesticides Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 21 - Pesticides Deck (79):
0

An adjunct in the treatment of organophorus poisoning is...

A. Morphine

B. Aminophylline

C. Prochlorperazine

D. None of the above

D. None of the above

1

Human male reproductive effects have been demonstrated after exposure to...

A. Permethrin

B. Chlordecone

C. Piperonyl butoxide

D. None of the above

B. Chlordecone

2

Which of the following is the most commonly used rodenticide?

A. Strychnine

B. Alpha-napthyltiourea

C. Rotenone

D. Anticoagulants

D. Anticoagulants

3

Which of the following is a plant growth regulator?

A. Gibberellic acid

B. Glyphosate

C. Simazine

D. Asulam

A. Gibberellic acid

4

Many of the organochlorine insecticides are no longer in use because of...

A. Environmental persistence

B. Bioaccumulation

C. Cancer in lab animals

D. All of the above

D. All of the above

5

Piperonyl butoxide...

A. Is synergistic with pyrethins

B. Has additive activity to pyrethrins

C. Is a renal toxicant

D. In lab animals, initial induction of P450 is followed by inhibition

A. Is synergistic with pyrethins

6

Which of the following has caused thyroid carcinoma in lab animals?

A. Warfarin

B. Zineb

C. Chlordecone

D. Dieldrin

B. Zineb

7

The cause of death in acute organophosphate poisoning is usually...

A. Respiratory failure

B. Cardiac arrhythmia

C. Status epilepticus

D. Hypothermia

A. Respiratory failure

8

All of the following are true of individuals with a genetic predisposition for an abnormal plasma cholinesterase except...

A. They have prolonged paralysis after succinylcholine

B. They have a normal response to curare

C. They are more susceptible to organophosphates

D. Dibucaine number is a measure of activity

C. They are more susceptible to organophosphates

9

The least toxic agent in terms of oral LD50 is...

A. Parathion

B. Alpha-naphthylthiourea

C. Aldicarb

D. Resmethin

D. Resmethin

10

There have been conflicting studies about the relationship between DDE serum levels and...

A. Breast cancer

B. Osteosarcoma

C. Dementia

D. Acute leukemia

A. Breast cancer

11

All of the following organochlorine pesticides are still in use in the US except...

A. Dicofol

B. Chlodecone

C. Endosulfan

D. Lindane

B. Chlodecone

12

The advantage of 2-PAM over atropine in the treatment of organophosphate poisoning is...

A. It is helpful in arrhythmias

B. It suppresses seizures

C. It acts at the neuromuscular junction

D. It prevents delayed neuropathy

C. It acts at the neuromuscular junction

13

Poisoning with chlordecone has been treated with...

A. Cholestyramine

B. Propranolol

C. 2-PAM

D. None of the above

A. Cholestyramine

14

The mechanism of action of sodium fluoroacetate is...

A. Inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

B. Inhibition of cytochrome oxidase

C. Inhibition of aconitase

D. Inhibition of DNA polymerase

C. Inhibition of aconitase

15

The acute toxicity of which of the following compounds has been proposed to be due to the presence of surfactant in their formulations?

A. Captan and folpat

B. Glyphosate and glufosinate

C. Atrazine and simazine

D. Alachlor and metolachlor

B. Glyphosate and glufosinate

16

The primary toxicity of elemental sulfur exposure in humans is...

A. Dermatitis

B. Skin cancer

C. Immune supression

D. Polycythemia

A. Dermatitis

17

All of the following are true of DDT except...

A. Convulsions can occur in severe poisoning

B. The liver is the target organ

C. An early symptom of exposure in humans is hyperesthesia

D. It is a cyclohexane derivative

D. It is a cyclohexane derivative

18

The presence of dimethylphosphate in urine is an indication of exposure to...

A. Propoxur

B. Dichlorvos

C. Fenvalerate

D. Heptachlor

B. Dichlorvos

19

Paraquat...

A. Is a rodenticide

B. Interferes with calcium channels

C. Is well absorbed orally

D. Is transported into the lung

D. Is transported into the lung

20

Which of the following is true of diaquat?

A. It is bone marrow toxic

B. It causes cataracts in animals

C. It is teratogenic

D. It accumulates in the liver

B. It causes cataracts in animals

21

2,4, D...

A. Is called Agent Orange

B. Is chemically similar to auxin

C. Has been formulated to contain up to 70% TCDD

D. Is a chloroacetanilide herbacide

B. Is chemically similar to auxin

22

DEET...

A. Is cardiotoxic

B. Inhibits photosynthesis

C. Is widely used and has a good safety record

D. Has a high incidence of dermatitis

C. Is widely used and has a good safety record

23

All of the following are true of imidocloprid except...

A. It is structurally similar to nicotine

B. It has selective toxicity for insects over mammals

C. It can be toxic to birds

D. It has been banned worldwide

D. It has been banned worldwide

24

Lepidopteran is an example of a...

A. Preemergent herbicide

B. Phermone

C. Recently introduced pesticide

D. Banned fungicide

B. Phermone

25

A mechanism of action for organotin fungicide is...

A. Stimulation of apoptosis

B. Inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase

C. Binding of cytochrome B1

D. Binding to ATP synthase

D. Binding to ATP synthase

26

The toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis is called...

A. Delta-endotoxin

B. Bufotalin

C. Bactrachotoxin

D. Ciguatoxin

A. Delta-endotoxin

27

The mechanism of action of triazine herbacides is...

A. Activation of auxin receptor

B. Inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport

C. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis

D. Inhibition of microtubule assembly

B. Inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport

28

Which of the following is true of an uncoupler of mitochondrial respiration?

A. Increase in pH of cytoplasm

B. Carboxyhemoglobin increases in red cells

C. Oxygen consumption increases and ATP production decreases

D. None of the above

C. Oxygen consumption increases and ATP production decreases

29

All of the following are symptoms of organophosphorus insecticide poisoning except...

A. Muscle twitching

B. Diarrhea

C. Mydriasis

D. Vomiting

C. Mydriasis

30

Oxine therapy 24 hrs after exposure to methyoxychlor is useless because...

A. Of the process of aging

B. Irreversible damage has occurred by 24 hrs

C. It takes at least 48 hrs for the active metabolite of methoxychlor to cause toxicity

D. Oxines are not indicated in organophosphorus insecticide toxicity

D. Oxines are not indicated in organophosphorus insecticide toxicity

31

Methods to measure exposure to organophosphorus insecticides include...

A. Red cell acetylcholinesterase

B. Pseudocholinesterase in plasma

C. Organophosphorus metabolites in urine

D. All of the above

D. All of the above

32

A syndrome of muscle weakness that occurs one to several days after acute poisoning with organophosphorus insecticides is called...

A. Nicotine syndrome

B. Intermediate syndrome

C. Organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropthy

D. Serotonin syndrome

B. Intermediate syndrome

33

The site of action for the toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides in causing organophosporus-induced delayed polyneuropathy is...

A. Myelin

B. Nicotine receptor

C. Neuropathy target esterase

D. Cytochrome P450 2E1

C. Neuropathy target esterase

34

As a class, which of the following are most acutely toxic?

A. Insecticides

B. Rodenticides

C. Herbacides

D. Fungicides

A. Insecticides

35

Worldwide, the highest percentage of poisoning deaths is due to...

A. Glyphosate and DEET

B. Triazines and alachlor

C. Paraquat and cholinesterase inhibitors

D. Rotenone and sodium fluoroacetate

C. Paraquat and cholinesterase inhibitors

36

Which of the following is true of OP insecticides that contain a sulfur bond to phosphorus?

A. They require bioactivation for activity

B. They are the most potent inhibitorsmof cytochrome oxidase known

C. There is no effective antidote

D. The nerve gas sarin is an example

A. They require bioactivation for activity

37

Which of the following is a carbamate insecticide?

A. Metamidophos

B. Diazinon

C. Aldicarb

D. All of the above

C. Aldicarb

38

Carbamates differ from OPs in that...

A. Cholinesterase inhibition is transient and reversible by carbamates

B. Oxines are generally not used in carbamate poisoning

C. Carbamylated acetylcholinesterase does not 'age'

D. All of the above

D. All of the above

39

All of the following are true of pyrethrins except...

A. They have low mammalian toxicity

B. They have high insecticidal potency

C. They require bioactivation

D. They have low environmental persistence

C. They require bioactivation

40

The mode of action of pyrethroids is mediated through...

A. Calcium channels

B. Potassium channels

C. Sodium channels

D. None of the above

C. Sodium channels

41

Type II pyrethroid insecticides differ from type 1 compounds in the presence of...

A. Fluoride atoms

B. Cyclopropyl groups

C. Cyano groups

D. Imidazole nucleus

C. Cyano groups

42

A distinguishing feature of type II pyrethroid toxicity in rats is the presence of...

A. Behavioral arousal

B. Clonic seizures

C. Aggressive sparring

D. Increase startle response

B. Clonic seizures

43

The mechanism of toxicity of DDT is similar to that of ...

A. Allethrin

B. Carbaryl

C. Chlorpyrifos

D. Malathion

A. Allethrin

44

Lindane and cyclodiene insecticides have toxicity mediated through...

A. Inhibition of cytochrome P450

B. Retinoic acid receptors

C. GABA receptor antagonism

D. Increase in extracellular calcium

C. GABA receptor antagonism

45

All of the following are true of chlordecone except...

A. It causes tumors in humans

B. It works by antagonism at the nicotine receptor

C. It is excreted in the bile

D. It is an inducer of P450

B. It works by antagonism at the nicotine receptor

46

The mechanism of action of rotenone is...

A. Blockade of sodium channels

B. Stimulation of glutamate receptors

C. Blockade of GABA receptors

D. Inhibiting the mitochondrial respiratory chain

D. Inhibiting the mitochondrial respiratory chain

47

All of the following are true of nicotine except...

A. Nicotine overdose both stimulates and paralyzes acetylcholine receptors

B. Atropine is an antidote

C. Dermal absorption could be significant

D. Signs and symptoms of poisoning include nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, and tachycardia

B. Atropine is an antidote

48

All of the following are true of neonicotinoids except...

A. Their use is increasing

B. They are more selective for insect receptors than mammal receptors

C. Their main drawback is that as a class, they are mutagenic

D. Examples are imidacloprid and nitenpyram

C. Their main drawback is that as a class, they are mutagenic

49

All of the following are true of formanidines except...

A. Signs of poisoning include hypertension, tachycardia, and hypoglycemia

B. Yohimbe is a theoretical antidote

C. In invertebrates, they are active octopamine-dependent adenylate cyclase

D. Amitraz is an example

A. Signs of poisoning include hypertension, tachycardia, and hypoglycemia

50

All of the following are true of avermectins except...

A. They can be synthesized by a fungus

B. They activate glutamate-dependent chloride channels in insects

C. They can activate GABA receptors in vertebrates

D. They are strong inhibitors of cytochrome P450 1A1

D. They are strong inhibitors of cytochrome P450 1A1

51

Piperonyl butoxide is added to increase the effect of...

A. Formamidines

B. Neonicotinoids

C. Pyrethroids

D. Avermectins

C. Pyrethroids

52

Fipronil, a phenylpyrazole, acts by...

A. Blocking sodium channels

B. Stimulating glutamate receptors

C. Blocking picrotoxin-binding site used by organochlorines

D. Blocking GABA-gated chloride channels

D. Blocking GABA-gated chloride channels

53

All of the following are true of Bacillus thuringienes except...

A. It is classified as a biobesticide

B. It requires activation at a pH less than 3

C. It is the most commonly used pesticide in its class

D. It has low mammalian toxicity

B. It requires activation at a pH less than 3

54

Citronella, DEET and picaridin are classified as...

A. Insecticides

B. herbicides

C. Insect repellants

D. Fungicides

C. Insect repellants

55

All of the following are true of 2, 4-D except...

A. It is toxic to broad-leaved plants but not grasses

B. It is highly contaminated with TCDD

C. Urine alkalinization accelerates its clearance

D. It is used extensively throughout the world

B. It is highly contaminated with TCDD

56

All of the following are true of paraquat except...

A. Most fatalities are secondary to dermal exposure

B. It may cause toxicity by redox cycling

C. Its target organs are lung and kidney

D. It is classified as a contact herbicide

A. Most fatalities are secondary to dermal exposure

57

All of the following are true of diaquat except...

A. It does not accumulate in the lung

B. It has some chemical similarity to paraquat

C. It is renal toxic

D. It is a human carcinogen

D. It is a human carcinogen

58

Chloroacetanilides...

A. Are rodenticides

B. Produce tumors at multiple locations in rats

C. Are asso w/ reproductive toxicity in humans

D. Include chlordimeform and amitraz as representative compounds

B. Produce tumors at multiple locations in rats

59

Triazine herbicides...

A. Are classified as contact herbicides

B. Inhibit oxidative phosphorylation

C. Have low acute oral and dermal toxicity

D. Do not have a ring in their chemical structure

C. Have low acute oral and dermal toxicity

60

All of the following are true of glyphosate except...

A. It inhibits a metabolic pathway not present in mammals

B. It is widely used worldwide

C. It is selective for grasses over weeds

D. It has a phosphorus atom in its chemical structure

C. It is selective for grasses over weeds

61

Captam and folpert are structurally similar to...

A. Thalidomide

B. Phencyclidine

C. Morphine

D. Urea

A. Thalidomide

62

All of the following are true of dithiocarbamates except...

A. Maneb has been asso w/ Parkinson's disease

B. They are structurally similar to disulfiram

C. They are postemergent herbicides

D. Some are asso w/ metal cations

C. They are postemergent herbicides

63

The fungicide with the lowest toxicity is...

A. Triphenyltin

B. Copper sulfate

C. Methylmercury

D. Hexachlorobenzene

B. Copper sulfate

64

All of the following are classified as rodenticides except...

A. Red squill

B. Warfarin

C. Glufosinate

D. Sodium fluoroacetate

C. Glufosinate

65

Methyl bromide...

A. Is an oderless gas

B. May deplete the ozone layer

C. Is used as a fumigant

D. All of the above

D. All of the above

66

Sarin is a...

A. Rodenticide

B. carbamate insecticide

C. Triazine herbicide

D. Cholinesterase inhibitor

D. Cholinesterase inhibitor

67

Fenvalerate is a/an...

A. Dithiocarbamate fungicide

B. Chloroacetanilide herbicide

C. Pyrethroid insecticide

C. Pyrethroid insecticide

68

2, 4, 5-T is a/an...

A. Chlorphenoxy acid herbicide

B. Organochlorine insecticide

C. Cholinesterase inhibitor

D. Benzimidazole fungicide

A. Chlorphenoxy acid herbicide

69

Acetochlor is a/an...

A. Neonicotinoid insecticide

B. triazine herbicide

C. Chloroacetanilide herbicide

D. Pyrethroid insecticide

C. Chloroacetanilide herbicide

70

Carbofuran is a/an...

A. Dithiocarbamate fungicide

B. Carbamate insecticide

C. Rodenticide

D. Benzimidazole fungicide

B. Carbamate insecticide

71

Propazine is a/an...

A. Triazine herbicide

B. cholinesterase inhibitor

C. Pyrethroid insecticide

D. Bipyridyl herbicide

A. Triazine herbicide

72

Endrin is a/an...

A. Rodenticide

B. organochlorine insecticide

C. Chloroacetanilide herbicide

D. Carbamate insecticide

B. organochlorine insecticide

73

Thiram is a/an...

A. Chlorophenoxy acid herbicide

B. pyrethroid insecticide

C. Neonicotinoid insecticide

D. Dithiocarbamate fungicide

D. Dithiocarbamate fungicide

74

Nithiazine is a/an...

A. Neonicotinoid insecticide

B. triazine herbicide

C. Bipyridyl herbicide

D. Carbamate insecticide

A. Neonicotinoid insecticide

75

Benomyl is a/an...

A. Bipyridyl herbicide

B. pyrethroid insecticide

C. Cholinesterase inhibitor

D. Benzimidaole fungicide

D. Benzimidaole fungicide

76

Chlorothalonil is a/an...

A. Neonicotinoid insecticide

B. Halogenated benzonitrile fungicide

C. Rodenticide

D. Organochlorine insecticide

B. Halogenated benzonitrile fungicide

77

Norbormide is a/an...

A. Halogenated benzonitrile fungicide

B. rodenticide

C. Bipyridyl herbicide

D. Pyrethroid insecticide

B. rodenticide

78

Diaquat is a/an...

A. Dithiocarbamate fungicide

B. pyrethroid insecticide

C. Bipyridyl herbicide

D. Carbamate insecticide

C. Bipyridyl herbicide