Chapter 23 - Toxicology of Plants Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 23 - Toxicology of Plants Deck (75):
0

Euphorbia marginata (snow-on-the-mountain) causes contact dermatitis by excreting...

A. Phenols

B. Benzaldehyde

C. Fatty acids

D. Latex

D. Latex

1

In Rhus radicans (poison ivy), the contact allergen is...

A. Urushiol

B. Capsaicin

C. Usnic acid

D. Ergot

A. Urushiol

2

The most common event that usually occurs from ingestion of a toxic plant is...

A. Asthma

B. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

C. Skin rash

D. Mental confusion

B. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

3

Saint Anthony's fire is due to the ingestion of...

A. Mushrooms

B. Ricin

C. Ergot alkaloids

D. Wisteria

C. Ergot alkaloids

4

A toxin that increases the cough reflex is...

A. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids

B. Brucine

C. Caulophylline

D. Capsaicin

D. Capsaicin

5

A toxin produced by the poppy plant that intercalates DNA is...

A. Ptaquiloside

B. Sanguinarine

C. Silymarin

D. Ochratoxin A

B. Sanguinarine

6

The false morel mushroom Gyromitra esculenta has been asso w/ ...

A. Leukemia

B. Gangrene

C. Hepatitis

D. Increased cardiac contractions

C. Hepatitis

7

The mechanism of action of ricin is...

A. Inhibition of protein synthesis

B. Uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation

C. Increasing intracellular calcium

D. Activation of protooncogenes

A. Inhibition of protein synthesis

8

Mad honey poisoning is due to...

A. Grayanotoxin

B. Convallatoxin

C. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids

D. 4-ipomeanol

A. Grayanotoxin

9

Cascara sagrada has medicinal use as...

A. An antidepressant

B. A laxative

C. A phytoestrogen

D. An antidiarrheal

B. A laxative

10

The alkaloids in Symphytum cause a human condition that resembles...

A. Pott's disease

B. TSS

C. Addison's disease

D. Budd-Chiari syndrome

D. Budd-Chiari syndrome

11

In cattle, ingestion of Lantana camara (Verbenacea) causes...

A. Cholestasis

B. Abortions

C. Abnormal behavior

D. Renal failure

A. Cholestasis

12

Veratrum alkaloids cause...

A. Hepatitis

B. Bradycardia

C. Bladder tumors

D. Lung fibrosis

B. Bradycardia

13

Squill and lily of the valley contain...

A. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids

B. Teratogens

C. Cardiac glycosides

D. Inner ear toxins

C. Cardiac glycosides

14

American mistletoe contains...

A. Jervine

B. Phoratoxin

C. Abrin-a

D. Aconitine

B. Phoratoxin

15

Datura species of houseplant contains...

A. Strychnine

B. Muscarinic agents

C. Anticholinergic agents

D. Sympathomimetic agents

C. Anticholinergic agents

16

A toxic ingredient in locoweed is...

A. Atropine

B. Domoic acid

C. Ibotenic acid

D. Swainsonine

D. Swainsonine

17

All of the following are excitatory amino acids except...

A. Jervine

B. Domoic acid

C. Ibotenic acid

D. Willardine

A. Jervine

18

Seizures have been asso w/ all of the following except...

A. Parsley family of plants

B. Spurge family of plants

C. Mint family of plants

D. Species of Strychnos

B. Spurge family of plants

19

Dicumarol is a fungal metabolite that causes...

A. Arrhythmias

B. Seizures

C. Hallucinations

D. Bleeding

D. Bleeding

20

Lysergic acid derivatives are produced by...

A. Amantia mushrooms

B. Gyromitra mushrooms

C. Fusarium fungus

D. Acremonium fungus

D. Acremonium fungus

21

Ochratoxin is a/an...

A. Positive ionotropic agent

B. immunosuppressant

C. Lung toxin

D. Cholinergic agent

B. immunosuppressant

22

Linamarin is a/an...

A. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid

B. Cardioactive glycoside

C. Cyanogenic glucoside

D. Fungal metabolite

C. Cyanogenic glucoside

23

Motor neuron demyelination results from ingestion of...

A. Cassava

B. Strychnos genus

C. Linamarin

D. Anthracenones

D. Anthracenones

24

All of the following contain anticholinergic alkaloids except...

A. Henbane

B. Oleander

C. Deadly nightshade

D. Jimsonweed

B. Oleander

25

Aconitine causes toxicity by....

A. Stimulating GABA receptors

B. Opening Ca channels

C. Prolonging sodium current in cardiac muscle

D. Inhibiting glycine receptors

C. Prolonging sodium current in cardiac muscle

26

Taxol is present in...

A. Autumn crocus

B. Western yew

C. Glory lily

D. May apple

B. Western yew

27

A toxin present in potatoes and tomatoes is...

A. Cholchicine

B. Vinblastine

C. Solanine

D. Podophyllotoxin

C. Solanine

28

Abrin mechanistically most resembles...

A. Ricin

B. Linamarin

C. Caulophylline

D. Scopolamine

A. Ricin

29

Methyllycaconitine mechanistically most resembles...

A. Physostigmine

B. Digitalis

C. Atropine

D. Curare

D. Curare

30

Monomethylhydrazine is found in...

A. Algae

B. Lichens

C. Ferns

D. Mushrooms

D. Mushrooms

31

Psilocybin is known to mostly affect which brain receptor?

A. Norepinephrine

B. Dopamine

C. GABA

D. Serotonin

D. Serotonin

32

Rhubarb, mother-in-law's tongue and philodendron all contain...

A. Oxalate

B. Cyanide

C. Nicotine

D. Atropine

A. Oxalate

33

Microcystin's mechanism of action may be...

A. Biliary stasis

B. Portal vein thrombosis

C. Destruction of liver cytoskeleton

D. T-cell mediated

C. Destruction of liver cytoskeleton

34

Uncooked wild nontoxic mushrooms can be toxic to...

A. Adults

B. Children

C. Diabetics

D. Asthmatics

B. Children

35

The least common toxicity from plant ingestion is...

A. Hepatic toxicity

B. Pancreatic toxicity

C. Cardiac toxicity

D. Dermatitis

B. Pancreatic toxicity

36

All of the following are made by plants except...

A. Opiates

B. Cocaine

C. Benzodiazepines

D. Hallucinogens

C. Benzodiazepines

37

Which of the following chemical classes is least likely to be a plant toxin?

A. Alcohols

B. alkaloids

C. Gylcosides

D. Hydrocarbons

D. Hydrocarbons

38

Ingestion of daffodil bulbs would first produce...

A. Gastrointestinal symptoms

B. Cardiac symptoms

C. Neurologic symptoms

D. Photosensitivity

A. Gastrointestinal symptoms

39

Dumbcane contains oxalate which acts as a...

A. Neurotoxin

B. Cardiac toxin

C. Hematologic toxin

D. Mucus membrane contact irritant

D. Mucus membrane contact irritant

40

Physostigmine would be considered as an antidote for ingestion of...

A. Vrocus

B. Water hemlock

C. Angel's trumpet

D. Locoweed

C. Angel's trumpet

41

Ergovaline inhibits...

A. Insulin release

B. Prolactin release

C. Vasopressin release

D. Aldosterone release

B. Prolactin release

42

An abortifacient present in tropical legimes is...

A. Mimosine

B. Anagyrine

C. Thermopsine

D. Jervine

A. Mimosine

43

Which of the following findings would be least likely to be found as a primary disease in a person who ingested Amantia?

A. Liver pathology

B. Brain pathology

C. Kidney pathology

D. Intestinal pathology

B. Brain pathology

44

All of the following are manifestations of belladonna alkaloid poisoning except...

A. Dry mouth

B. Dilated pupils

C. Hallucinations

D. Bronchospasm

D. Bronchospasm

45

Cattle consuming Solanum malacoxylon (Solanocene) develop a disease similar to...

A. Parkinson's disease

B. Addison's disease

C. Vitamin D intoxication

D. SIADH

C. Vitamin D intoxication

46

The mechanism of action of podophyllotoxin is similar to...

A. Ricin

B. Rotenone

C. Cholchicine

D. Oubain

C. Cholchicine

47

Ricin comes from...

A. Lily of the valley

B. Castor bean plant

C. Oleander

D. Wisteria

B. Castor bean plant

48

All of the following produce alkaloids that affect the heart except...

A. European hellebore

B. Monkshood

C. Petunia

D. Rhododendron

C. Petunia

49

Saint Anthony's fire is produced by...

A. Arsenic

B. Clavicepts purpurea

C. False morel mushrooms

D. Lantana camara

B. Clavicepts purpurea

50

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are asso w/ ...

A. Hepatic veno-occlusive disease

B. Hallucinations

C. Renal failure

D. All of the above

A. Hepatic veno-occlusive disease

51

All of the following contribute to the variability in toxin produced by a plant except...

A. Varying toxin concentration in different parts of the plant

B. Age of the plant

C. Climate and soil

D. Type of local herbivore

D. Type of local herbivore

52

A cross sensitivity between individuals allergic to latex gloves and some plant components is known as...

A. Latex-root syndrome

B. Latex-leaf syndrome

C. Latex-fruit syndrome

D. Latex-seed syndrome

C. Latex-fruit syndrome

53

A potential human hepatotoxin produced by lichens is...

A. Domoic acid

B. Usnic acid

C. Butyric acid

D. Carbolic acid

B. Usnic acid

54

Saint John's wort can cause which of the following in sheep?

A. Photosensitivity

B. Infertility

C. Renal failure

D. Abnormal behavior

A. Photosensitivity

55

4-ipomeanol causes which type of toxicity in animals?

A. Liver and pancreatic

B. Lung and renal

C. Heart and muscle

D. Neurologic

B. Lung and renal

56

Most fatal mushroom poisoning occurs from all of the following except...

A. Amantia

B. Gyromitra

C. Galerina

D. Lepiota

B. Gyromitra

57

Alpha-amanitian...

A. Is respinsible for the diarrhea seen in death cap poisoning

B. Is poorly absorbed orally

C. Is a potent inhibitor of hepatic protein synthesis

D. None of the above

C. Is a potent inhibitor of hepatic protein synthesis

58

Aflatoxins are dangerous to humans because they...

A. Are present in wet basements

B. Cause pneumonia in AIDS patients

C. Are asso w/ nasal carcinoma

D. None of the above

D. None of the above

59

Which of the following plants is carcinogenic?

A. American hellebore

B. Bracken fern

C. Buttercup

D. Tung nut

B. Bracken fern

60

All of the following are true of grayanotoxins except...

A. They are present in rhododendrons

B. They contaminate honey

C. They cause bradycardia

D. They block the neuromuscular junction

D. They block the neuromuscular junction

61

Plant molecules that react as bases and usually contain nitrogen in a heterocyclic structure are known as...

A. Alkaloids

B. Terpenes

C. Resins

D. Glycoside

A. Alkaloids

62

Plant molecules that are created from isoprene units with varying functional groups are known as...

A. Terpenes

B. Amines

C. Alkaloids

D. Phenols

A. Terpenes

63

Plant molecules that are hydrolyzed to a sugar and a nonsugar moiety are known as...

A. Glycosides

B. alkaloids

C. Resins

D. Terpene

A. Glycosides

64

Toxic minerals that may accumulate in plants include all of the following except...

A. Cadmium

B. Magnesium

C. Copper

D. Selenium

B. Magnesium

65

Brassica oleracea (kale) contains...

A. Cardiac glycosides

B. Cyanogenic glycosides

C. Goiterogenic glycosides

D. Steroid glycosides

C. Goiterogenic glycosides

66

A plant toxin that can be highly transmitted through milk is...

A. Oxalate

B. cyanide

C. Nitrate

D. Tremetol

D. Tremetol

67

An antidote is available for the toxin present in...

A. Azalea

B. Pigweed

C. Veratrum

D. Apple seeds

D. Apple seeds

68

Which of the following plant toxins is classified as an alcohol?

A. Nicotine

B. Ranunculus

C. Dogbane

D. Tremetol

D. Tremetol

69

Amygdalin is found in the highest amounts in the seeds of...

A. Bitter almond

B. Tomato

C. Pear

D. Plum

A. Bitter almond

70

Strychnine blocks...

A. Glycine-gated Cl channels

B. Glutamate receptors

C. GABA receptors

D. Voltage-gated Na channels

A. Glycine-gated Cl channels

71

The toxin found in species of Capsicum has been shown to be useful in the therapy of...

A. Skin cancer

B. Depression

C. Chronic pain

D. Decubitus ulcers

C. Chronic pain

72

All of the following are true of curare except...

A. It was a South American arrow poison

B. It is a neuromuscular blocking agent

C. It can be used clinically

D. It is a CNS toxin

D. It is a CNS toxin

73

Swainsonine...

A. Is present in vinca species

B. Is a glycoprotein

C. Causes abortions in livestock

D. None of the above

C. Causes abortions in livestock

74

The veratrum and lupine alkaloids are...

A. Teratogenic

B. Components of marketed pharmaceuticals

C. Used as insecticides

D. Poisons that Socrates drank

A. Teratogenic