Chapter 26 - Air and Water Pollution Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 26 - Air and Water Pollution Deck (38):
0

The Clean Air Act of 1970 established...

A. OSHA

B. USEPA

C. FDA

D. USDA

B. USEPA

1

Approximately what percentage of the US population lives in areas that are noncompliant with NAAQS?

A. 10

B. 20

C. 50

D. 90

C. 50

2

How many chemicals are listed as hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990?

A. 8

B. 26

C. 188

D. 421

C. 188

3

In terms of excess mortality, particulate matter air pollution is most pronounced in...

A. Eastern Europe

B. US

C. Latin America

D. India

D. India

4

All of the following are fuel additives except...

A. Hexachlorophene

B. Organic oxygenates

C. Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl

D. Platnium compounds

A. Hexachlorophene

5

All of the following are common symptoms associated with sick building syndrome except...

A. Memory loss

B. Headaches

C. Fatigue

D. Nausea

A. Memory loss

6

A gas that is water soluble and can cause bronchoconstriction and mucus secretion in humans is...

A. Ozone

B. nitrogen dioxide

C. Sulfur dioxide

D. Carbon monoxide

C. Sulfur dioxide

7

Most of the irritant acid sulfates in air are neutralized by...

A. Sodium bicarbonate

B. Ammonia

C. Sodium hydroxide

D. Sodium carbonate

B. Ammonia

8

Which of the following statements is true?

A. Ozone does not stimulate neutrophilic lung inflammation

B. Inhaled sulfuric acid disturbs eicosanoid homeostasis

C. Inhaled sulfuric acid stimulates neutrophilic lung inflammation

D. The primary concern with exposure to inhaled sulfuric acid is long-term disease secondary to connective tissue disturbances

B. Inhaled sulfuric acid disturbs eicosanoid homeostasis

9

The index that most correlates with the biological effects of PM is...

A. Percent organic composition

B. Percent metal composition

C. Percent total inorganic composition

D. Mass concentration

D. Mass concentration

10

Which of the following would likely have the lowest ratio of indoor to outdoor concentration in air?

A. CO

B. Particulate matter

C. VOCs

D. Ozone

D. Ozone

11

A meteorological inversion is...

A. Cold air capped over warm air

B. Warm air capped over cold air

C. Vertical mixing of cold air over warm air

D. Vertical mixing of warm air over cold

A. Cold air capped over warm air

12

The organ thought to be affected most by particulate-matter air pollution is...

A. Liver

B. Heart

C. Brain

D. Skin

B. Heart

13

All of the following are considered plausible reasons to explain the biological hazards of particulate matter air pollution except...

A. Presence of metals

B. Presence of viruses

C. Presence of organics

D. Presence of oxidants

B. Presence of viruses

14

The results of the Harvard Six Cities Study demonstrated all of the following except...

A. The presence of PM had a significant effect on life span

B. Presence of acid in pollution correlated better than sulfate for causing bronchitis in children

C. Presence of sulfate in pollution was better associated with acute mortality than acid

D. Presence of acid in air pollution was better associated with acute mortality than sulfate

D. Presence of acid in air pollution was better associated with acute mortality than sulfate

15

All of the following groups are more sensitive to air pollutants except...

A. Asthmatics

B. Farmers

C. Elderly

D. Children

B. Farmers

16

The air pollution that has undergone the most significant decrease since 1973 is...

A. Carbon monoxide

B. Ozone

C. Lead

D. VOCs

C. Lead

17

Which of the following air pollutants has had the largest percentage decrease since 1993?

A. Sulfur dioxide

B. Carbon monoxide

C. Nitrogen oxide

D. Particulate matter

A. Sulfur dioxide

18

Reducing-type air pollutants have historically been associated with...

A. Coal-based urban centers

B. Surburban areas

C. Rural farm areas

D. Areas having less than 10 inches of annual rainfall

A. Coal-based urban centers

19

All of the following statements are true except...

A. It is estimated that over 480 million people worldwide are exposed to potentially harmful levels of ozone

B. People in most industrialized countries spend more than 80% of their time indoors

C. Children are more likely to be exposed to higher levels of outdoor air pollutants compared to adults

D. Historically, oxidant-type air pollution was more likely to occur during winter months.

D. Historically, oxidant-type air pollution was more likely to occur during winter months.

20

Ultrafine particles are defined as...

A. < 0.001 um

B. < 0.01 um

C. < 0.1 um

D. < 2.5 um

C. < 0.1 um

21

All of the following statements are true regarding diesel emissions except...

A. Particulate emissions are largely ultrafine

B. Diesel exhaust induces inflammation in human airway cells

C. Ozone enhances the toxicity of diesel particle alone

D. Unlike gasoline, diesel exhaust does not contain a significant amount of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and VOCs

D. Unlike gasoline, diesel exhaust does not contain a significant amount of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and VOCs

22

Lung cancer has been caused in rats by overload with all of the following except...

A. Humidified air

B. Toner dust

C. Talc

D. Diesel emissions

A. Humidified air

23

The fact that coal miners do not seem to have a higher risk of lung cancer if they are not smokers supports the concept that...

A. Overload lung cancer may not be relevant to humans

B. Human lungs have different P450s compared to rats

C. Human lungs have different blood flow from rat lungs

D. All of the above

A. Overload lung cancer may not be relevant to humans

24

All of the following are components of photochemical air pollution except...

A. Ozone

B. Nitric oxides

C. Argon

D. Peroxyacetyl nitrates

C. Argon

25

Ozone reacts with unsaturated fatty acids in the lung to form all of the following except...

A. Hydroxyhydroperoxides

B. Aldehydes

C. Alkanes

D. Ozonides

C. Alkanes

26

All of the following are true of ozone except...

A. It can decrease the incidence of infection in animals exposed to aerosols containing infectious agents

B. Toxicity may vary according to genetics

C. It can induce tolerance to self

D. Some studies have shown that antioxidant supplements can protect against ozone's toxic effects

A. It can decrease the incidence of infection in animals exposed to aerosols containing infectious agents

27

All of the following are true of nitrogen dioxide except...

A. Farmers can be exposed to near-lethal levels

B. It can cause pulmonary edema

C. It is a more potent irritant than ozone

D. It is a deep lung irritant

C. It is a more potent irritant than ozone

28

Nitrogen dioxide is associated with all of the following except...

A. Indoor kerosine heaters

B. Sidestream tobacco smoke

C. Fresh silage

D. Blue-green algae

D. Blue-green algae

29

All of the following are true of carbon monoxide except...

A. It is highly water soluble

B. It is not a deep lung irritant

C. It can decrease coronary sinus pO2 in patients with coronary artery disease

D. The normal concentration of carboxyhemoglobin in nonsmokers is 0.5%

A. It is highly water soluble

30

A genetic variation in which of the following enzymes has been asso w/ an enhancement of allergic airway inflammation in people exposed to diesel exhaust particles...

A. CYP2D6

B. Glutathione-S-transferase M1

C. Cyclooxygenase 2

D. Glucuronyl transferase

B. Glutathione-S-transferase M1

31

Airborne concentrations of which of the following has stopped being a major health problem in the US?

A. Sulfur dioxide

B. Nitrogen dioxide

C. Lead

D. Ozone

C. Lead

32

A compound added to gasoline to reduce wintertime carbon monoxide emissions is...

A. Chloroform

B. methyl tert-butyl ether

C. Dimethyltin

D. Xylene

B. methyl tert-butyl ether

33

The guinea pig is a better model than the rat for...

A. Upper airway irritant responses

B. Tissue remodeling

C. Nasal tumors

D. None of the above

A. Upper airway irritant responses

34

The major air pollutant emitted in the US is...

A. Nitrogen dioxide

B. Carbon monoxide

C. Sulfur dioxide

D. Ozone

C. Sulfur dioxide

35

All of the following are potential indoor air pollution carcinogens except...

A. Radon

B. Formaldehyde

C. 1, 3-butadine

D. Tobacco smoke

C. 1, 3-butadine

36

A characteristic of sick building syndrome is...

A. Legionnaires' disease, accounting for up to 20% of cases

B. It is frequently asso w/ a low-grade fever

C. Reproducibility in animals is a diagnostic criterion

D. Specific etiology is frequently unknown

D. Specific etiology is frequently unknown

37

The Clean Air Act of 1970 adopted standards for air levels of all of the following except...

A. Ozone

B. Carbon monoxide

C. Carbon dioxide

D. Particulate matter

C. Carbon dioxide