Chapter 17 - Reproductive Toxicology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17 - Reproductive Toxicology Deck (46):
0

Human sexual differentiation begins during gestation week...

A. 2

B. 3

C. 7

D. 10

C. 7

1

Gonadal differentiation is dependent on signals from which of the following genes?

A. TES

B. SRY

C. AND

D. CAPUT

B. SRY

2

Fetal testicular androgen production is necessary for the development of all of the following except...

A. Testicles

B. Ureter

C. Epididymis

D. Seminal vesicles

B. Ureter

3

All of the following are true of cryptorchidism except...

A. It follows a recessive pattern of inheritance

B. It occurs in 3% of full-term male births

C. It occurs in 30% of preterm births

D. It is the most common human birth defect

A. It follows a recessive pattern of inheritance

4

Which of the following statements is true?

A. The female reproductive system is more susceptible to endocrine disruption

B. Both male and female reproductive systems are equally sensitive to endocrine disruption

C. Both male and female reproductive systems are relatively insensitive to endocrine disruption

D. The male reproductive system is more susceptible to endocrine disruption

D. The male reproductive system is more susceptible to endocrine disruption

5

The stages of puberty in boys and girls are determined by using ...

A. Mullerian scale

B. Anogenital distance

C. Serum cortisol levels

D. Tanner stages

D. Tanner stages

6

Which of the following statements are true?

A. Over the last 40 years, the age of onset of puberty has decreased significantly for boys and girls in most countries in the world

B. Over the last 40 years, the age of onset of puberty has decreased significantly for boys only in most countries in the world

C. Over the last 40 years, the age of onset of puberty has decreased significantly for boys only in the U.S.

D. None of the above

D. None of the above

7

Direct exposure to estrogens in personal care and natural products can cause...

A. Gynecomastia in boys

B. Arrested adrenarche in girls

C. Testicular and ovarian cancer later in life

D. All of the above

A. Gynecomastia in boys

8

In the laboratory rat, all of the following are standard landmarks of puberty except...

A. Anogenital distance

B. Male prepubertal separation age

C. Age of vaginal opening

D. Age of first estrus

A. Anogenital distance

9

All of the following are potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals except...

A. TCCD

B. Acetone

C. Methoxychlor

D. Vinclozolin

B. Acetone

10

All of the following drugs can affect the production of gonadotropins except...

A. Hydrochlorothiazide

B. Reserpine

C. Chlorpromazine

D. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors

A. Hydrochlorothiazide

11

Testicular castration will cause...

A. Decreased serum FSH and LH

B. Decreased serum FSH and increased serum LH

C. Increased serum FSH and decreased serum LH

D. Increased serum FSH and LH

D. Increased serum FSH and LH (release of negative feedback).

12

All of the following are true of ovarian function except...

A. Chemicals that damage oocytes will not lead to reduced fertility

B. About 400 primary ovarian follicles will produce mature ova during a female's reproductive years

C. Females are born with about 400,000 follicles in each ovary

D. At age 30, about 25,000 oocytes remain

A. Chemicals that damage oocytes will not lead to reduced fertility

13

All of the following male reproductive target sites-toxicant pairs are correct except...

A. CNS-dopamine antagonists

B. Pituitary-zinc

C. Pineal-melatonin

D. Paternal developmental toxicity-cyclophosphamide

B. Pituitary-zinc

14

A chemical that inhibits energy metabolism in sperm is...

A. TCE

B. Xylene

C. Epichlorhydrin

D. Styrene

C. Epichlorhydrin

15

A class of drugs that could cause erectile dysfunction is...

A. NSAIDs

B. Drugs affecting the autonomic nervous system

C. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors

D. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors

C. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors

16

The most important hormone in the production of milk is...

A. Serotonin

B. Oxytocin

C. Prolactin

D. Norepinephrine

C. Prolactin

17

In humans, maintenance of the corpus luteum to produce progesterone during pregnancy is dependent upon...

A. Pituitary hormones

B. Significant increase in full litter loss

C. Increase in breast cancer in offspring at adulthood

D. No effect on pregnancy outcome

B. Significant increase in full litter loss

(progesterone is required for pregnancy maintainence)

18

According to the Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome, exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals during male fetal development could cause decreased Leydig cell function and disturbed Sertoli cell function leading to...

A. Decreased sperm quality

B. Testicular cancer

C. Hypospadias

D. All of the above

D. All of the above

19

All of the following statements are true except...

A. Aminoglutethimide feminizes human males during in utero exposure

B. Human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals can produce a beneficial effect on one tissue and an adverse effect on another tissue

C. Testosterone produces a U-shaped dose-response curve for spermatogenesis

D. Androgen receptor antagonists can become agonists at high concentrations

A. Aminoglutethimide feminizes human males during in utero exposure

20

Miroesterol is...

A. A metabolite of DES

B. a product of a fungus

C. Produced by marine invertebrates

D. A phytoestrogen

D. A phytoestrogen

21

Pulp and paper mill effluents contain a chemical that...

A. Masculinizes the female mosquito fish

B. Binds to the estrogen receptor

C. Feminizes the male mosquito fish

D. Acts as a corticosteroid antagonist

A. Masculinizes the female mosquito fish

22

The herbicide linuron is...

A. An androgen agonist

B. An androgen antagonist

C. An estrogen agonist

D. An estrogen antagonist

B. An androgen antagonist

23

All of the following are environmental antiandrogens except...

A. Vinclozolin

B. Procymidone

C. p, p1-DDE

D. Nandrolone

D. Nandrolone

24

An estrogen receptor agonist present in oral contraceptives that enters aquatic systems from human sewage is...

A. Estradiol

B. DES

C. Ethinyl estradiol

D. Pregnenolone

C. Ethinyl estradiol

25

The Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee (EDSTAC) recommends all of the following assays as tier 1 screening tests except...

A. Multigenerational reproductive study

B. Uterotropic assay

C. Hershberger assay

D. Pubertal female rat assay

A. Multigenerational reproductive study

26

There is strong human evidence for adverse female reproductive or developmental effects for all of the following except...

A. Carbon monoxide

B. Dioxins

C. Mercury

D. Tobacco smoke

B. Dioxins

27

All of the following are considered adverse human pregnancy outcomes except...

A. Spontaneous abortion

B. Postterm delivery

C. Low birth

D. Prematurity

B. Postterm delivery

28

All of the following workplace chemicals have OSHA standards based partially on reproductive effects except...

A. Methanol

B. Lead

C. Dibromochloropropane

D. Ethylene oxide

A. Methanol

29

Shortened anogenital distance would be expected in male infants born to mothers with high prenatal exposure to...

A. Tobacco smoke

B. Phthalate

C. Particulate matter air polution

D. Boron

B. Phthalate

30

All of the following medical conditions are asso w/ decreased male fertility except...

A. Viral orchitis

B. Varicocele

C. Hypertension

D. Klinefelter's syndrome

C. Hypertension

31

All of the following personal habits have exhibited some evidence for adverse male reproductive outcomes except...

A. Use of artificial sweeteners

B. Frequent hottub use

C. Marijuana use

D. Cigarette smoking

A. Use of artificial sweeteners

32

Risk factors for adverse female reproductive outcomes include all of the following except...

A. HIV treatment

B. Viral rhinitis

C. Ionizing radiation exposure

D. Methotrexate use during pregnancy

B. Viral rhinitis

33

All of the following chemicals/drugs can alter the onset of pubertal landmarks in rats except...

A. TCCD

B. Busulfan

C. Methoxychlor

D. Erythromycin

D. Erythromycin

34

A plasticizer that causes delayed puberty in the rat due to Leydig cell inhibition is..

A. Atrazine

B. Ketoconazole

C. Dibutyl phthalate

D. Aniline

C. Dibutyl phthalate

35

An example of a toxicant that can cause infertility in rats by interfering with testicular blood flow is...

A. Methyl mercury

B. Cadmium

C. Nickel carbonyl

D. Hexavalent chromium

B. Cadmium

36

Which of the following chemicals causes testicular toxicity in the rat?

A. M-dinitrobenzene

B. Ethyl glycol monomethyl ether

C. Methoxyacetic acid

D. All of the above

D. All of the above

37

Which of the following characteristics is least likely to affect transport across the placenta?

A. Presence of a chlorine atom

B. Protein binding

C. Degree of ionization

D. Molecular size

A. Presence of a chlorine atom

38

The time between fertilization and implantation in humans is approx...

A. 12 hrs

B. 1 day

C. 3 days

D. 8 days

D. 8 days

39

It has been suggested that in utero exposure to endocrine-disrupter chemicals could be responsible for all of the following except...

A. Decreased sperm counts

B. Sexual dysfunction at age 50

C. Increase in cryptorchid testes

D. Increase in testicular cancer

B. Sexual dysfunction at age 50

40

Examples of endocrine disruptor effects on wildlife include all of the following except...

A. Sulfur dioxide effects on rodents

B. DDT metabolites in birds

C. PCB effects on fish

D. Environmental estrogen effects on domestic animals

A. Sulfur dioxide effects on rodents

41

Mechanisms by which xenobiotics alter human development include toxicant binding to all of the following except...

A. Estrogen receptor

B. Androgen receptor

C. Acetylcholine receptor

D. Retinoic acid receptor

C. Acetylcholine receptor

42

Adverse estrogenic reproductive effects i. Domestic animals are produced by feeds contaminated with...

A. Solanaceous glycoalkaloids

B. Zearalenone from Fusarium

C. Ergot alkaloids from Claviceps

D. Nitrosamines

B. Zearalenone from Fusarium

43

Which of the following is an environmental agonist at the androgen receptor?

A. 17-beta-trenbolone

B. o,p 1-DDT

C. Vinclozolin

D. Methoxychlor

A. 17-beta-trenbolone

44

The Hershberger assay detects toxicants with...

A. Antiestrogen activity

B. Antiandrogenic activity

C. Mutagenic activity

D. Hepatic toxicity

B. Antiandrogenic activity

45

The phthalate syndrome in rats includes all of the following except...

A. Causation by flutamide

B. Decrease in insulin-like 3 peptide hormone synthesis

C. Decrease in testosterone synthesis

D. Agenesis of the testicles

A. Causation by flutamide