Chapter 22 - Animal Toxicology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 22 - Animal Toxicology Deck (54):
0

Toxins produced by poisonous animals usually are derived...

A. From photochemical reactions

B. From altered purine and pyrimidine synthesis

C. From the food chain

D. From chemicals in the soil and water

C. From the food chain

1

The larger macromolecules of snake venom are probably...

A. Transported by OAT

B. Broken down by enzymes in the subcutaneous tissue to small components

C. Never absorbed but act locally

D. Absorbed through the lymphatics

D. Absorbed through the lymphatics

2

Envenomation from Centruroides genus of scorpion in children produces...

A. Nystagmus, tachycardia, fasciculations

B. Bradycardia, dry mouth, hypothermia

C. Fever, sweating dilated pupils

D. Blindness, polyuria, jaundice

A. Nystagmus, tachycardia, fasciculations

3

The omega-agatoxins have selectivity for vertebrate...

A. Calcium channels

B. Potassium channels

C. Sodium channels

D. Chloride channels

A. Calcium channels

4

The spider genus that causes the longest pain duration after biting a human is...

A. Steatoda

B. Lamponidae

C. Loxosceles

D. Latrodectus

D. Latrodectus

5

Which of the following genus of spiders produces a skin lesion up to 10 cm wide with muscle invasion and necrosis after envenomation?

A. Loxosceles

B. Agelenopsis

C. Latrodectus

D. Theraphosidae

A. Loxosceles

6

All of the following are true of tarantula bites except...

A. Death occurs in 10% of cases

B. Cramps and muscle spasms can occur

C. The venom contains peptides

D. Local pain, itching and tenderness can occur

D. Local pain, itching and tenderness can occur

7

All of the following are true of ticks except...

A. The saliva contains toxins

B. They will suck blood for 24 h or more before injecting saliva

C. The bite is often not felt

D. Skin lesions may not appear until several days after the bite

B. They will suck blood for 24 h or more before injecting saliva

8

Centipede bites...

A. Causes seizures

B. Produces pulmonary toxicity

C. Release a cardiac toxin that mimics cholinergic stimulation

D. Can cause liver failure

C. Release a cardiac toxin that mimics cholinergic stimulation

9

Eye injuries can result from toxins sprayed by...

A. Brown recluse spiders

B. Centipedes

C. Scorpions

D. Millipedes

D. Millipedes

10

All of the following are frog and/or toad toxins except...

A. Saxitoxin

B. Bufotoxin

C. Bactrachotoxin

D. Histrionicotoxin

A. Saxitoxin

11

Three of the following animals produce a venom with similar effects. The animal with a venom that has a different mechanism of action is...

A. Rattlesnake

B. Salamander

C. Water moccasin

D. Copperhead

B. Salamander

12

The toxin of the pufferfish concentrates in...

A. Brain and nerves

B. Heart and skeletal muscle

C. Liver and ovaries

D. Kidney and eye

C. Liver and ovaries

13

The toxin in the pufferfish causes death by...

A. Hyperthermia

B. Pulmonary edema

C. Respiratory paralysis

D. Liver failure

C. Respiratory paralysis

14

The toxin from the sea snake...

A. Is one of the most potent vertebrate toxins

B. Is only harmful to animals

C. Is a mixture of non-proteins

D. None of the above

A. Is one of the most potent vertebrate toxins

15

All of the following are true of the Portuguese man-of-war except...

A. An effective antivenom exists

B. Death can occur from stings

C. Acetic acid has no effect on relief of symptoms

D. Topical lidocaine can be used to reduce pain

A. An effective antivenom exists

16

All of the following are true of sea urchins except...

A. Most urchins cannot inject venom into humans

B. Two species from the Pacific Ocean can inflict serious envenomations

C. They are in the phylum Mollusca

D. Most stings from urchins result in primarily mechanical injuries

C. They are in the phylum Mollusca

17

All of the following types of bony fish are toxin-producing except...

A. Boxfish

B. Rabbitfish

C. Scorpionfish

D. Koi

D. Koi

18

All of the following snakes release significant neurotoxins except...

A. Eastern diamond-back rattlesnake

B. Coral

C. Cobra

D. Mamba

A. Eastern diamond-back rattlesnake

19

The alkaloid toxins of several brightly-colored poison dart frogs come from...

A. Photochemical reactions in their skin

B. A diet of certain ants

C. Swimming in collections of toxic algae

D. A diet of seeds containing cyanide

B. A diet of certain ants

20

A coagulopathy could result from envenomation from certain species of South American...

A. Spiders

B. Moths

C. Scorpions

D. Ants

B. Moths

21

Non-disulfide-rich conpeptides target all of the following receptors except...

A. Opiate

B. Vasopression

C. NMDA

D. Neurotensin

A. Opiate

22

The disulfide-rich conopeptides target all of the following ion channels except...

A. Sodium

B. Potassium

C. Phosphate

D. Calcium

C. Phosphate

23

All of the following are true regarding snakes except...

A. Most chew their food before swallowing it

B. Pit vipers can sense warm-blooded animals

C. The Columbridae is the largest venomous family

D. The Viperidae fang is a highly efficient structure for toxin delivery

A. Most chew their food before swallowing it

24

Sarafotoxins present in Afro-Arabian asps can cause...

A. Hepatic vein thrombosis

B. Common bile duct stones

C. Bronchiolitis obliterans

D. Coronary artery constriction

D. Coronary artery constriction

25

All of the following statements are true regarding animal toxins except...

A. Some venoms can contain more than 100 proteins

B. Venoms can be used to study normal physiology

C. Snake toxins are usually more potent than botulinum toxin

D. Some venoms have been a source of marketed drugs

C. Snake toxins are usually more potent than botulinum toxin

26

All of the following statements are true of scorpion venoms except...

A. They can affect potassium channels

B. The major neurotoxins are nonpeptides

C. They can affect sodium channels

D. Not all scorpions have toxins that affect neurotransmission

B. The major neurotoxins are nonpeptides

27

A significant toxin asso w/ black widow spiders is...

A. Alpha-latrotoxin

B. Alpha-cobrotoxin

C. Battrachotoxin

D. Ciguatoxin

A. Alpha-latrotoxin

28

Ticks are asso w/ all of the following except...

A. Lyme disease

B. Paralysis

C. Methicillin-resistant staph

D. Babesiosis

C. Methicillin-resistant staph

29

Bites from centipedes are unusual in that...

A. They are painless

B. They cause black streaking

C. They have delayed toxicity 1 wk later

D. They produce 2 small punctures

D. They produce 2 small punctures

30

An important component of ant venom is...

A. Sodium hydroxide

B. Formic acid

C. Phenols

D. Potassium ions

B. Formic acid

31

An unusual aspect of cone snail toxin is...

A. Sometimes the toxin can kill the cone snail

B. It is only 1 toxin

C. Varying ocean temperatures will lead to different toxins

D. Multiple toxins act synergistically

D. Multiple toxins act synergistically

32

The venom of the Gila monster...

A. Does not have a commercially available antivenom

B. Is similar to the coral snake

C. Is a frequent cause of death

D. Is used in cancer treatments

A. Does not have a commercially available antivenom

33

All of the following statements are true of rattlesnake venom except...

A. The venoms are usually a complex mixture

B. They usually affect the integrity of blood vessels and coagulation mechanisms

C. They are all strongly neurotoxic

D. Hypotension can be a life-threatening outcome

C. They are all strongly neurotoxic

34

Antivenoms...

A. Can be produced against snake, spider and scorpion toxins

B. can be monovalent or polyvalent

C. Can cause type I or Type III hypersensitivity reactions

D. All of the above

D. All of the above

35

Cobra venom factor...

A. Stimulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

B. Activates the complement cascade

C. Stimulates glutamate receptors

D. None of the above

B. Activates the complement cascade

36

Drugs useful in the treatment of hypertension (ACE inhibitors) have been developed from...

A. Scorpion venom

B. Wasp venom

C. Brown recluse spider venom

D. Venom from Bothrops jarataca (pit viper)

D. Venom from Bothrops jarataca (pit viper)

37

The sea turtle is asso w/ ...

A. Venom similar to Gila monster

B. Venom containing tetrodotoxin

C. Algal toxins that accumulate in meat

D. Venom that targets Na channels

C. Algal toxins that accumulate in meat

38

Leeches are asso w/ ...

A. The ability to deplete blood volume in small animals

B. Venom containing solenopsons

C. Anticoagulants

D. Venom that targets K channels

A. The ability to deplete blood volume in small animals

39

Sea anemonies...

A. Are a type of venomous starfish

B. Contain actinosporins

C. Venom targets Ca channels

D. Venom targets the cell membrane

B. Contain actinosporins

40

A crown of thorns is a type of...

A. Aquarium fish that contains venom on its spines

B. Aquarium fish that releases toxins into the environment

C. Venomous sea anemone

D. Venomous starfish

D. Venomous starfish

41

The lionfish...

A. Is an aquarium fish with venom on its spines

B. Venom is an anticoagulant

C. Venom confains actinosporins

D. Is an aquarium fish that releases toxins into the environment

A. Is an aquarium fish with venom on its spines

42

The boxfish...

A. Is an aquarium fish with venom on its spines

B. Venom is an anticoagulant

C. Venom confains actinosporins

D. Is an aquarium fish that releases toxins into the environment

D. Is an aquarium fish that releases toxins into the environment

43

The cone snail...

A. Venom targets acetylcholinesterase

B. Venom targets Ca channels

C. Is the most toxic species in the animal kingdom

D. Has venom similar to Gila monsters

C. Is the most toxic species in the animal kingdom

44

The blue-ringed octopus...

A. Venom contains tetrodotoxin and haplatoxin

B. meat accumulates algal toxins

C. Venom targets Ca channels

D. Meat contains actinosporins

A. Venom contains tetrodotoxin and haplatoxin

45

The fire ant venom

A. contains actinosporins

B. targets Na channels

C. Contains solenopsins

D. Targets cell membranes

C. Contains solenopsins

46

The beaded lizard...

A. Has TTX present in the skin of some species

B. Is the most toxic species in the animal kingdom

C. Has venom similar to Gila monster

D. Venom contains anticoagulants

C. Has venom similar to Gila monster

47

Frogs...

A. Have venom that contain tetrodotoxin and hapalotoxin

B. Have TTX present in the skin of some species

C. Have venom that targets Ca channels

D. Have venom similar to the Gila monster

A. Have venom that contain tetrodotoxin and hapalotoxin

48

Draculin..

A. Is the most toxic species in the animal kingdom

B. Is a type of venomous starfish

C. Is a type of venom

D. Is a type of anticoagulant

D. Is a type of anticoagulant

49

Phospholipase A2 ...

A. Targets K channels

B. Targets Na channels

C. Targets Ca channels

D. Targets cell membranes

D. Targets cell membranes

50

Dendrotoxin...

A. Targets K channels

B. Targets Na channels

C. Targets Ca channels

D. Targets cell membranes

A. Targets K channels

51

Omega-agatoxin...

A. Targets K channels

B. Targets Na channels

C. Targets Ca channels

D. Targets cell membranes

C. Targets Ca channels

52

Tetrodotoxin...

A. Targets K channels

B. Targets Na channels

C. Targets Ca channels

D. Targets cell membranes

B. Targets Na channels

53

Fasciculin...

A. Depletes blood volume in small animals

B. Is an anticoagulant

C. Targets acetylcholinesterase

D. Targets cell membranes

C. Targets acetylcholinesterase