Chapter 14 - Neurotoxicology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 - Neurotoxicology Deck (66):
0

When the neuronal cell body is lethally injured, the process is called...

A. Neuritis

B. Neuralgia

C. Axonopathy

D. Neuronopathy

D. Neuronopathy

1

The slowest component of axonal transport involves movement of the...

A. Mitochondria

B. Protein in vessicles

C. Ctyoskeleton

D. None of the above

C. Ctyoskeleton

2

To satisfy its high energy requirements, the brain relies on...

A. Fatty acid oxidation

B. Aerobic glycolysis

C. Phosphocreatine

D. Anaerobic glucose metabolism

B. Aerobic glycolysis

3

A purpose of circumventricular organs in the brain is to...

A. Allow nutrients to rapidly enter the brain

B. Actively transport xenobiotics back to the blood

C. Allow for neuronal hypertrophy in response to injury

D. Respond to changes in blood hormone levels

D. Respond to changes in blood hormone levels

4

The high energy requirement of neuronal tissue is due to...

A. Maintenance and reestablishment of ion gradients

B. high levels of protein synthesis and degradation

C. High level of immune surveillance

D. All of the above

A. Maintenance and reestablishment of ion gradients

5

Tardive dyskinesia is caused by long-term use of ...

A. Tricyclic antidepressants

B. Phenothiazines

C. Amphetamines

D. Cocaine

B. Phenothiazines

6

An advantage that the developing nervous system has over the adult nervous system is...

A. Less sensitivity to toxic insult

B. Faster recovery from toxic insult

C. A tighter blood-brain barrier

D. None of the above

B. Faster recovery from toxic insult

7

All of the following are asso w/ neuropathies except...

A. Cyanide

B. Organic mercury

C. Doxirubicin

D. Gold

D. Gold

8

The neurotoxicity of aminoglycoside antibiotics is manifested as...

A. Hearing loss

B. Visual field defects

C. Cognitive dysfunction

D. Peripheral neuropathy

A. Hearing loss

9

Encephalopathy after acute exposure and peripheral neuropathy after chronic exposure has been asso w/ ...

A. Methanol

B. Phenytoin

C. Arsenic

D. 6-aminonicotinamide

C. Arsenic

10

Encephalopalthy has been asso w/ all of the following except...

A. Streptomycin

B. Lead

C. Aluminum

D. Carbon monoxide

A. Streptomycin

11

Which of the following toxicant-toxicity pairs is incorrect?

A. Aluminum-nystagmus

B. Lead-IQ

C. Inorganic mercury - tremor

D. Manganese-Parkinson's disease

A. Aluminum-nystagmus

12

All of the following are asso w/ axonopathies except...

A. N-hexane

B. isoniazid

C. Nitrofurantoin

D. Nicotine

D. Nicotine

13

Which of the following toxicant-toxic results pairs is incorrect?

A. Metronidazole-seisures

B. Lithium-ataxia

C. Colchicine-blindness

D. Dapsone-peripherial neuropathy

C. Colchicine-blindness

14

Which of the following are asso w/ myelinopathies except...

A. Carbon disulfide-waltzing syndrome

B. tri-o-cresyl phosphate-OP-induced delayed neurotoxicity

C. Acrylamide-peripheral neuropathy

D. Pyridinethione-used in shampoos

A. Carbon disulfide-waltzing syndrome

15

All of the following are asso w/ myelinopathies except...

A. Aminodarone

B. Cisplatin

C. Perhexiline

D. Tellurium

B. Cisplatin

16

The neurotoxicity of cocaine is mediated by...

A. Blockade of cholinergic receptors

B. Stimulation of muscarinic receptors

C. Alterations in striatal dopamine receptors

D. Stimulation of NMDA receptors

C. Alterations in striatal dopamine receptors

17

One cause for hepatic encephalopathy is excessive brain levels of...

A. Ammonia

B. Glucose

C. Free fatty acids

D. Glutathione

A. Ammonia

18

A theory for the neurotoxicity of metronidazole is that its metabolites closely resemble...

A. Niacin

B. Biotin

C. Vitamin B12

D. Thiamine

D. Thiamine

19

Exposure to fluoroacetate can occur through use of...

A. Fluoride toothpaste

B. Freon

C. 5-fluorouricil

D. Halothane

C. 5-fluorouricil

20

Nicotine receptors are located in all of the following areas except...

A. Ganglia

B. Pancreas

C. Neuromuscular junction

D. CNS

B. Pancreas

21

Chinese restaurant syndrome is thought to be due to consumption of excessive amounts of...

A. Tyramine

B. Glycine

C. Tyrosine

D. Glutamate

D. Glutamate

22

MPP+ is transported into the CNS by the same system that transports....

A. Glucose

B. Amino acids

C. Dopamine

D. Free fatty acids

C. Dopamine

23

Peripheral neuropathies from axonopathies are first to involve...

A. Midline area of the body

B. Dorsal surface of arms and legs

C. Cranial nerves

D. Distal parts of hands and feet

D. Distal parts of hands and feet

24

Which of the following agents promotes the formation of microtubules instead of their depolarization?

A. Vincristine

B. Colchicine

C. Vinblastine

D. Paclitaxel

D. Paclitaxel

25

The mechanism of neurotoxicity for hexachlorophene is...

A. Depletion of CNS dopamine

B. Wallerian degeneration

C. Axonopathy

D. Intramyelinic edema

D. Intramyelinic edema

26

All of the following are true regarding HIV-associated dementia except....

A. Cocaine causes a synergistic neurotixicity

B. It can be attenuated by beta-estradiol

C. Amphetamine causes a synergistic neurotixicity

D. Cigarette use causes a synergistic neurotixicity

D. Cigarette use causes a synergistic neurotixicity

27

Which of the following is classified as an amphetamine?

A. MDMA

B. cocaine

C. Phenylephedrine

D. Pseudoephedrine,

A. MDMA

28

The main excitatory neurotransmitter of the brain is...

A. Acetylcholine

B. glycine

C. Tryptophan

D. None of the above

D. None of the above

29

MPTP is converted to a charged ion by...

A. MAO-B

B. MAO-A

C. COMT

D. dopa-decaboxylase

A. MAO-B

30

Solvent neurotoxicity to the CNS correlates with...

A. Boiling point

B. Vapor pressure

C. Lipid solubility

D. None of the above

C. Lipid solubility

31

A trigeminal neuropathy could result from chronic exposure to....

A. Benzene

B. Lead

C. Dioxin

D. Trichloroethylene

D. Trichloroethylene

32

All of the following are neurologic consequences of carbon monoxide poisoning except...

A. Carotid artery occlusion

B. Parkinson's disease

C. Residual memory defects

D. MRI abnormalities in subcortical white matter

A. Carotid artery occlusion

33

Nitrous oxide can cause neurotoxicity by interfering with...

A. Vitamin B6

B. Vitamin B12

C. Folic acid

D. Vitamin A

B. Vitamin B12

34

Which of the following is least useful in the evaluation of a patient with neurotixicity?

A. Nerve conduction study

B. MRI

C. Aspartate transaminase

D. Neuropsychological testing

C. Aspartate transaminase

35

All of the following are true regarding exposure to a neurotoxic agent except...

A. Parasympathetic and sympathetic blockade

B. Muscarinic and nicotinic overstimulation

C. Parasympathetic blockade

D. Sympathetic blockade

B. Muscarinic and nicotinic overstimulation

36

All of the following are true regarding neurotoxic agents except...

A. They are typically associated with a focal or asymetrical syndrome

B. Toxicity is usually dose related

C. There are strong temporal relationships

D. A single toxin/toxicant can be asso w/ multiple neurologic syndromes

A. They are typically associated with a focal or asymetrical syndrome

37

A toxicant exposure combined with age-related attrition of neurons is a possible explanation for all of the following except...

A. Parkinson's Disease

B. Amyotropic lateral sclerosis

C. Multiple sclerosis

D. Alzheimer's dementia

C. Multiple sclerosis

38

Statins and ethanol are both asso w/...

A. Cranial nerve palsy

B. multiple sclerosis

C. Myopathy

D. Neurotransmitter-associated toxicity

C. Myopathy

39

Which of the following statements is true regarding polyneuropathies?

A. Nerve biopsy is always necessary for proper diagnosis

B. About 50% to 60% of cases remain undiagnosed after medical investigation

C. There are no nontoxic causes for polyneuropathy

D. Neurologic deficits are often more pronounced in the hands compared to the feet.

B. About 50% to 60% of cases remain undiagnosed after medical investigation

40

Which of the following has the highest energy requirement to perform normal function?

A. CNS

B. Astrocyte

C. Schwann cell

D. Oligode drocyte

A. CNS

41

All of the following statements are true except...

A. A single nerve cell can extend to over 1 meter

B. the Nissl substance is the site of protein synthesis in neurons

C. The central and peripheral nervous systems have equal regenerative abilities

D. The blood-brain barrier is incompletely developed at birth

C. The central and peripheral nervous systems have equal regenerative abilities

42

The cell type responsible for formation of myelin in the CNS is...

A. Schwann cell

B. Oligodendrocyte

C. Glia cell

D. Stellate cell

B. Oligodendrocyte

43

Trimethytin produces a/an...

A. Neuropathy

B. axonopathy

C. Myelinopathy

D. Blockade of neurotransmitter uptake

A. Neuropathy

44

The identical axonopathy produced by n-hexane is also produced by...

A. Methylmercury

B. Benzene

C. Methyl n-butyl ketone

D. Hexachlorophene

C. Methyl n-butyl ketone

45

Covalent cross-linking of neurofilaments is thought to underlie the nervous system toxicity of...

A. Vincristine and vinblastine

B. aminodarone and tellurium

C. Lead and mercury

D. Carbon disulfide and n-hexane

D. Carbon disulfide and n-hexane

46

The human neuropathy of lead is unique in that...

A. It is reversible with vitamin B6 uptake

B. It affects children and not adults

C. It presents with predominantly motor symptoms

D. There is no clear dose-response relationship

C. It presents with predominantly motor symptoms

47

The cell that appears to be a primary means of defense against toxicant exposure in the CNS is...

A. Astrocyte

B. Schwann cell

C. Oligodendrocyte

D. Wallerian cells

A. Astrocyte

48

All of the following produce neurotransmission-associated neurotoxicity expect..

A. Nicotine

B. Metronidazole

C. Cocaine

D. Amphetamine

B. Metronidazole

49

A domoic acid exposure in Canada caused a neurological syndrome because domoic acid is an analog of...

A. Glycine

B. Glutamate

C. GABA

D. Nicotine

B. Glutamate

50

All of the following are true of excitatory neurotransmitters except...

A. Their toxicity has been implicated in neurodegenerative disease

B. Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter of the brain

C. Kainate is 100x more potent than glutamate

D. Benzodiazepines block excitatory amino acid receptor

D. Benzodiazepines block excitatory amino acid receptor

51

A meperidine derivative that is neurotoxic is...

A. GABA

B. MPTP

C. GHB

D. PCP

B. MPTP

52

A common toxicologic mechanism for chemicals causing Parkinson's disease is...

A. Mitosis arrest

B. Impairment of sodium influx

C. Mitochondrial dysfunction

D. Similarity to endogenous amino acids

C. Mitochondrial dysfunction

53

The neurotoxic metabolite of MPTP...

A. Crosses the BBB by active transport

B. Is formed in astrocytes by MAO-B

C. Is a free radical

D. None of the above

B. Is formed in astrocytes by MAO-B

54

All of the following are developmental neurotoxicants except...

A. Lead

B. Ethanol

C. Folic acid

D. Methylmercury

C. Folic acid

55

Toxicant-induced amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has been caused by...

A. Aluminum

B. MPTP

C. paraquat

D. None of the above

D. None of the above

56

Bilirubin and hexachlorophene are most toxic to a/an...

A. Premature infant

B. Newborn

C. Immunosuppressed individual

D. Elderly individual

A. Premature infant

57

Amantadine is asso w/...

A. Withdrawal seizures

B. Psychosis

C. Psychosis

D. Mania

C. Psychosis

58

Clarithromycin is asso w/ ...

A. Mania

B. VIII cranial nerve toxicity

C. Conc-related seizures

D. Depression

A. Mania

59

Beta-adrenergic blockers are asso w/ ...

A. Myoclonus, hyperreflexia

B. muscle toxicity

C. Psychosis

D. Depression

D. Depression

60

Carbon monoxide is asso w/ ...

A. Muscle toxicity

B. Parkinson's disease

C. Myoclonus, hyperreflexia

D. Withdrawal seizures

B. Parkinson's disease

61

Merperidine metabolite asso w/ ...

A. Psychosis

B. Parkinson's disease

C. Conc-related seizure disorder

D. Muscle toxicity

C. Conc-related seizure disorder

62

Lovastatin is asso w/ ....

A. Muscle toxicity

B. Mania

C. Muscle toxicity

D. Depression

C. Muscle toxicity

63

Barbituates are asso w/ ...

A. Mania

B. depression

C. Psychosis

D. Withdrawal seizures

D. Withdrawal seizures

64

Salicylates are asso w/...

A. Depression

B. VIII cranial nerve toxicity

C. Muscle toxicity

D. Myoclonus, hyperreflexia

B. VIII cranial nerve toxicity

65

Clostridium tetani toxin is asso w/...

A. Myoclonus, hyperreflexia

B. Muscle toxicity

C. Mania

D. Psychosis

A. Myoclonus, hyperreflexia