Chapter 8 - Immune System Toxicology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Immune System Toxicology Deck (60):
0

All of the following are components of tertiary lymphoid tissue except...

A. Spleen

B. Peyer's patches

C. Skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT)

D. Nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT)

A. Spleen

1

The lymphoid precursor cell is derived from...

A. Null cell

B. Pluripotent stem cell

C. Myeloid precursor

D. Monocyte

B. Pluripotent stem cell

2

All of the following are considered nonself by the immune system except...

A. Cancers

B. Red blood cells

C. Bacteria

D. Viruses

B. Red blood cells

3

T cell precursors are programmed to leave the bone marrow and migrate to the...

A. Spleen

B. Lymph nodes

C. Thymus

D. Peyer's patches

C. Thymus

4

Thymic education means that T cells...

A. Are converted to B cells

B. Are taught to recognize self vs non-self

C. Are taught to produce immunoglobulins

D. Are taught to proliferate rapidly

B. Are taught to recognize self vs non-self

5

Peyer's patches are...

A. Collect antigens from the gastrointestinal tract

B. Are parts of the tonsillar tissue

C. Are located in the center of the spleen

D. Are located in the lung

A. Collect antigens from the gastrointestinal tract

6

Tertiary lymphoid tissue...

A. Produce totipotent stem cells

B. Include the thymus

C. Have direct contact with the external environment

D. All of the above

C. Have direct contact with the external environment

7

All of the following are parts of the innate immune system except...

A. Macrophages

B. B cells

C. NK cells

D. PMNs

B. B cells

8

All of the following are true of IgG except...

A. It crosses the placenta

B. There are subclasses

C. It can fix complement

D. It can degranulate mast cells

D. It can degranulate mast cells

9

All of the following are true of INFalpha except...

A. It is classified as an immunosuppressant

B. It is used to treat hepatitis C

C. It is asso w/ autoimmune disease

D. It has antiviral properties

A. It is classified as an immunosuppressant

10

All of the following are true of antigens except...

A. They are 10 kDa or larger

B. They are non-self substances that can be recognized by the immune system

C. Parts of the human body can never be antigens

D. They can be foreign DNA, RNA, protein or carbohydrates


C. Parts of the human body can never be antigens

11

The inability of self-reactive T cells that escape negative selection to proliferative in response to self-antigen exposure is called...

A. Autoimmunity

B. Self-tolerance

C. Hypersensitivity

D. Opsonization

B. Self-tolerance

12

All of the following statements are true regarding developmental immunology except...

A. Immune system development is complete at birth

B. The immune system develops from a population of pluripotent stem cells

C. Animals with short gestation periods have relatively immature immune systems at birth compared to humans

D. Exposure to specific antigens during the prenatal period allows the organism not to develop autoimmune reactions later in life.


A. Immune system development is complete at birth

13

All of the following are autoimmune diseases except...

A. Rheumatoid arthritis

B. multiple sclerosis

C. Schizophrenia

D. Myasthenia gravis

C. Schizophrenia

14

An assay that was developed to test the immunostimulating capacity of pharmaceuticals is...

A. ELISA

B. Flow cytometric analysis

C. Popliteal lymph node assay

D. All of the above

C. Popliteal lymph node assay

15

All of the following are direct mechanisms of xenobiotic-induced immune modulation except...

A. Increased mineralocorticoid release from adrenal gland

B. Altered antibody-mediated response

C. Altered cell-mediated response

D. Altered host resistance

A. Increased mineralocorticoid release from adrenal gland

16

A prolonged inflammatory response may contribute to the development of...

A. Alzheimer's disease

B.Cardiovascular disease

C. Multiple Sclerosis

D. All of the above

D. All of the above

17

When a cytotoxic cell attaches to an Fc protein of IgG directed against a foreign antigen, the hypersensitivity rxn is called type...

A. I

B. II

C. III

D. IV

B. II

18

When IgG or IgM directed against soluble antigens produces antigen-antibody complexes that are deposited in tissues, the hypersensitivity rxn is called type...

A. I

B. II

C. III

D. IV

C. III

19

When an antigen processing cell interacts with T cells leading to the generation and proliferation of memory T cells, the hypersensitivity rxn is type...

A. I

B. II

C. III

D. IV

D. IV

20

The process of negative selection for self-reactive T cells occurs in the...

A. Bone marrow

B. Spleen

C. Thymus

D. Lymph nodes

C. Thymus

21

An essential component of antigen processing is...

A. Return of antigen-processing cell to bone marrow

B. a time interval of 7 days between internalization of antigen and its appearance on the cell surface

C. Binding of complement to antigen-processing cell

D. Asso. of modified antigen with major histocompatibility complex

D. Asso. of modified antigen with major histocompatibility complex

22

All of the following are true except...

A. Monocytes circulate in the blood for about a day

B. natural killer cells are derived from the monocyte

C. Perforin and granzyme are mediators of cell death by NK cells

D. PMNs combat microrganisms by the release of ROS

B. natural killer cells are derived from the monocyte

23

Mononuclear phagocytes within the CNS are called....

A. Microglia

B. Kupffer cells

C. Stellate cells

D. Astrocytes

A. Microglia

24

All of the following are involved in the humoral response except...

A. B cell

B. T cell

C. Eosinophil

D. Antigen-presenting cell

C. Eosinophil

25

In cell-mediated cytotoxicity, the target cell is induced by the effector cell to undergo...

A. Necrosis

B. apoptosis

C.proliferation

D. Hyperplasia

B. apoptosis

26

All of the following are true of the innate immune response except...

A. It is less specific than acquired immunity

B. complement is a soluble mediator

C. The response can be enhanced by repeated antigen exposure

D. Acute-phase proteins are involved

C. The response can be enhanced by repeated antigen exposure

27

All of the following are true of the complement system except...

A. It functions to destroy membranes of infectious agents and promote an inflammatory response

B. there is no interaction w/ the acquired immune response

C. Three pathways have been identified

D. Activation occurs when components sequentially act on others

B. there is no interaction w/ the acquired immune response

28

The Fc region of an antibody mediates all of the following functions except...

A. Complement activation

B. Binding to phagocytes

C. Binding to leukocytes

D. Inhibiting hyaluronidase of bacteria

D. Inhibiting hyaluronidase of bacteria

29

All of the following are antigen-processing cells except...

A. Basophils

B. Macrophage

C. Follicular dendritic cells

D. Langerhans dendritic cells

A. Basophils

30

Individuals with low to moderate suppression of immune function are more susceptible to infections with...

A. Protozoans

B. Candida albicans

C. Influenza

D. Pneumocystis carinii

C. Influenza

31

All of the following are true regarding the immunotoxicology of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons except...

A. They are particularly immunotoxic in mice

B. They are asso w/ thymic atrophy in animal models

C. Their effects are mediated through AHR

D. Prolonged human exposure can result in death from immunodeficiency

D. Prolonged human exposure can result in death from immunodeficiency

32

Which of the following toxicant-reactant pairs is incorrect?

A. Benzopyrene-metabolized by bone marrow

B. TCCD-chloracne

C. PCDF-recurring respiratory infections

D. PBB-severe human immunodeficiency

D. PBB-severe human immunodeficiency

33

All of the following are true statements except...

A. Malathion demonstrates both immune suppression and immunoenhancement

B. The immunotoxicity of organophosphates is due to suppression of acetylcholinesterases

C. Parathion suppresses both cell-mediated and humorial immunity

D. There is a correlation between DDE levels in breast milk and infant ear infections.

B. The immunotoxicity of organophosphates is due to suppression of acetylcholinesterases

34

All of the following can suppress the immune system except...

A. Zinc

B. Arsenic

C. Lead

D. Mercury

A. Zinc

35

Which of the following statements is true regarding opioid use and HIV infection?

A. Morphine increases CCR5 expression

B. Heroin use is asso. w/ increased risk of HIV infection

C. Opioid use may contribute to HIV progression through immune suppression

D. All of the above

D. All of the above

36

All of the following have been asso w/ increased risk for development of scleroderma in at least one clinical study except...

A. Cocaine

B. silica

C. Vinyl chloride

D. Organic solvents

A. Cocaine

37

All of the following gasses have been shown to alter pulmonary immunologic response except...

A. Ozone

B. Carbon dioxide

C. Sulfur dioxide

D. Nitrogen dioxide

B. Carbon dioxide

38

All of the following metals (not salts) are asso w/ a high incidence of contact dermatitis except...

A. Chromium

B. Nickel

C. Platinum

D. Cobalt

C. Platinum

39

Hypersensitivity to latex can manifest in all of the following ways except...

A. Pulmonary fibrosis

B. Asthma

C. Urticaria

D. Anaphylaxis

A. Pulmonary fibrosis

40

Papain and subtilin are...

A. Mold toxins

B. Mushroom toxins

C. Commercial enzymes

D. Hypersensitivity agents in latex

C. Commercial enzymes

41

All of the following statements are true except...

A. Risk assessment in immunotoxicology is a highly accurate exercise

B. Many chemicals can alter the immune system of animals

C. Perturbations in immune function can occur in the absence of any clinical observable effect

D. Alterations in immune function are correlated with an increased risk of infectious disease

A. Risk assessment in immunotoxicology is a highly accurate exercise

42

The Buehler test is used to assess...

A. Autoimmunity

B. Pulmonary hypersensitivity

C. Type III hypersensitivity reactions

D. Contact hypersensitivity


D. Contact hypersensitivity

43

Respiratory sensitization in animals is primarily an indication of a/an...

A. Type I rxn

B. Type II rxn

C. Type III rxn

D. Autoimmune rxn

A. Type I rxn

44

A xenobiotic that enhances immune function is called a/an...

A. Promoter

B. Hapten

C. Regulator

D. Adjuvant

D. Adjuvant

45

The overall immunocompetence of an individual is affected least by...

A. Hair color

B. Age

C. Gender

D. Nutritional status

A. Hair color

46

In general, acute-phase reactants are asso w/ ...

A. Regulating the clotting system

B. Binding toxicants for renal excretion

C. Downregulation of the immune system

D. Induction of drug metabolism

C. Downregulation of the immune system

47

NK cells have surface markers that are similar to...

A. B cells

B. T cells

C. Neither B or T cells

D. Both B and T cells

C. Neither B or T cells

48

The most common type of immune modulation that occurs from exposure to xenobiotics is...

A. Autoimmune disease

B. Hypersensitivity

C. Carcinogenesis

D. Lymphadenopathy

B. Hypersensitivity

49

The immunotoxicity of PCBs PCDFs and PCDDs is thought to occur by...

A. Binding to the glucocorticoid receptor

B. Binding to the estrogen receptor

C. Binding to the AH receptor

D. Binding to the androgen receptor

C. Binding to the AH receptor

50

The gender-related differences in human immune function include all of the following except...

A. Males have higher levels of circulating immunoglobulins

B. Females have a greater antibody response

C. Females have a higher incidence of autoimmune disease

D. Males are more susceptible to the development of sepsis

A. Males have higher levels of circulating immunoglobulins

51

A potent inhibitor of protein synthesis is found in...

A. Snake venom toxin

B. Black widow spider toxin

C. Black mold toxin

D. Oleander toxin

C. Black mold toxin

52

Besides their effects on secondary sex characteristics, estrogens are also asso w/ ...

A. Dental caries protection

B. Enhanced wound healing

C. Decreased gastric acid secretion

D. Anti-inflammatory effects

D. Anti-inflammatory effects

53

Which of the following is asso w/ immunosuppression in humans?

A. Opioids

B. Cannabinoids

C. Ethanol

D. All of the above

D. All of the above

54

The major concern with genetically modified food crops is...

A. Production of electrophiles leading to carcinogenesis

B. Expression of novel proteins

C. Decrease in nutritional value

D. Modification of intestinal flora

B. Expression of novel proteins

55

All of the following are asso w/ SLE-like syndrome except....

A. Procainamide

B. hydralazine

C. Isoniazid

D. Methyldopa

D. Methyldopa

56

Halothane hepatitis is...

A. Autoimmune

B. Cholestatic

C. Vascular

D. None of the above

A. Autoimmune

57

Xenobiotic induced SLE is an example of...

A. Autoimmunity

B. Hypersensitivity

C. Immunostimulation

D. Immunosuppression

A. Autoimmunity

58

Toluene diisocyanate commonly causes....

A. Autoimmunity

B. Hypersensitivity

C. Immunostimulation

D. Immunosurpression

B. Hypersensitivity

59

Azathioprine commonly causes....

A. Autoimmunity

B. Hypersensitivity

C. Immunostimulation

D. Immunosupression

D. Immunosupression