Chapter 25 - Environmental Toxicology Flashcards Preview

ABT Test > Chapter 25 - Environmental Toxicology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 25 - Environmental Toxicology Deck (36):
0

Biomagnification is a/an...

A. Increase in chemical concentration in animal tissue compared to surrounding water

B. Increase in chemical concentration in an organism as it moves up the food chain

C. Increase in the unionized form of a chemical as it enters an organism

D. Sudden availability of previously sequestered chemicals in an organism

B. Increase in chemical concentration in an organism as it moves up the food chain

1

The concentration of a chemical in an organism divided by the concentration of a chemical in the water in which the organism comes in contact with is called...

A. Biota sediment accumulation factor

B. Organism/water partition co-efficient

C. Food chain ratio

D. Bioconcentration factor

D. Bioconcentration factor

2

In a body of water, the insoluble form of a metal is usually in the form of a/an...

A. Chlorate

B. Sulfate

C. Sulfide

D. Bromide

C. Sulfide

3

All of the following biotransformation enzymes are upregulated by ligand binding to AH receptor except...

A. CYP1A1

B. CYP2E1

C. CYP1A2

D. CYP1B1

B. CYP2E1

4

The earthworm survival test is used to test the toxicity of...

A. River water

B. Rainwater

C. Soil

D. Groundwater

C. Soil

5

Lichens are useful to test for the effects of...

A. Air pollution

B. Endocrine disrupters

C. Radiation

D. Oil spills

A. Air pollution

6

All of the following are true of water-soluble toxicants compared to more lipid-soluble toxicants except...

A. They disperse more in the environment

B. They are less sorbed to soil

C. They are less sorbed to sediments

D. They bioaccumulate

D. They bioaccumulate

7

Biodegradation of toxicants in the environment occurs primarily by...

A. Mammalian liver metabolism

B. Photochemical reactions

C. Microbial metabolism

D. Chemical reactions on limestone

C. Microbial metabolism

8

The most common screening test for environmental chemicals is...

A. Acute toxicity

B. Repeat-dose toxicity

C. Carcinogenicity

D. Reproductive toxicity

A. Acute toxicity

9

In a community, the keystone species is...

A. The population with the largest number

B. The population that has a crucial role

C. The population most sensitive to toxicants

D. The population in danger of extinction

B. The population that has a crucial role

10

The richness of a community refers to...

A. The number of different species

B. The number of different genera

C. The ratio of the number of animal species to the number of plant species

D. The number of keystone species

A. The number of different species

11

Evenness of a community refers to...

A. The ratio of keystone species to dominant species

B. The ratio of predators to prey

C. The ratio of carnivores to herbivores

D. How equitably the individuals in a community are spread among the species

D. How equitably the individuals in a community are spread among the species

12

IBI stands for...

A. Institute of Biotic Information

B. Index of Biological Identity

C. Index of Biotic Integrity

D. Inorganic Biotic Identity

C. Index of Biotic Integrity

13

Which of the following would be considered a biomarker?

A. Concentration of methylmercury in river water

B. pH of acid rain

C. Concentration of PAH-DNA adducts

D. Number of pregnant rainbow trout

C. Concentration of PAH-DNA adducts

14

An example of a chemical producing an adverse effect on an animal's immune function is...

A. Pesticides in amphibians

B. PCBs in channel fish

C. Heavy metals in rainbow trout

D. All of the above

D. All of the above

15

Organophosphate insecticide and methylmercury exposures have had a major impact on wildlife...

A. Cardiac development

B. Liver development

C. Kidney development

D. Behavior

D. Behavior

16

Cancer associated with chemical contaminates of aquatic systems is highest in...

A. Species that live close to the surface

B. Species that eat plankton

C. Species that live in sediments

D. Species that eat shrimp

C. Species that live in sediments

17

A collection of members of the same species that occupy the same location and within which can exchange genetic information is called a...

A. Genus

B. Population

C. Subpopulation

D. Community

B. Population

18

All of the following factors can reduce population densities except...

A. Argon levels

B. Toxicant exposure

C. Weather

D. Number of predators

A. Argon levels

19

Toxicants added to aquatic systems that enhance the growth of phytoplankton can cause fish and invertebrate mortality by...

A. Lowered nitrate levels

B. Competition for sunlight

C. Hypoxia

D. Attraction of predators

C. Hypoxia

20

Organochloride pesticides affect avian reproduction by causing...

A. Maternal hypertension

B. Eggshell thinning

C. Decreased ovulation

D. Abrupto placentae

B. Eggshell thinning

21

Morpholinos are used to...

A. Transiently block translation of specific proteins

B. Block oxidative phosphorylation

C. Enhance translation of specific proteins

D. Repair DNA damage

C. Enhance translation of specific proteins

22

Developmental effects in fish embryos have been associated with all of the following except...

A. Increased particulate matter in the air

B. Oil spills

C. Paper mill effluents

D. Creosote

A. Increased particulate matter in the air

23

Stimulation of CYP1A1 in zebra fish...

A. Provides some protection against embryo toxicity for carcinogens that are metabolized to less-toxic compounds

B. Provide some protection against dioxin-mediated embryo toxicity

C. Enhances the toxicity of RNS

D. All of the above

A. Provides some protection against embryo toxicity for carcinogens that are metabolized to less-toxic compounds

24

All of the following act as AHR ligands except...

A. Bisphenol A

B. Dioxin

C. Benzopyrene

D. 3-methylcholanthrene

A. Bisphenol A

25

A liver enzyme that is a marker for vertebrate exposure to inducers of AHR is...

A. Vitellogenin

B. Alkaline phosphase

C. Aspartate transaminase

D. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD)

D. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD)

26

Birds exposed to spent lead shot will have inhibition of...

A. Acetylcholinesterase

B. ALAD

C. CYP2E1

D. AST

B. ALAD

27

The effects of pollutants on mitochondrial energy metabolism can be particularly devastating to wildlife because...

A. Certain species have fewer mitochondria per cell as compared to those of humans

B. Certain species have less-efficient oxidative phosphorylation as compared to that of humans

C. Food sources are depleted during the winter

D. They have less brown fat than humans do

C. Food sources are depleted during the winter

28

PAHs, metals and nanoparticles can be sequestered in...

A. Mitochondria

B. Ribosomes

C. Endoplasmic reticulum

D. Lysosomes

D. Lysosomes

29

Increased vitellogenin levels in male fish are a biomarker for..

A. Xenoextrogen exposure

B. PAH

C. Oxidative stress

D. DNA damage

A. Xenoextrogen exposure

30

All of the following are possible environment estrogen receptor agonists except...

A. Methoxychlor

B. DDT

C. Bromobenzene

D. Bisphenol A

C. Bromobenzene

31

All of the following are true of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor except...

A. Some very potent binders are poorly metabolized

B. No known drugs or endogenous chemicals activate this receptor

C. It is a ligand-binding cytosolic receptor

D. Genes upregulated by the receptor include specific P450s

B. No known drugs or endogenous chemicals activate this receptor

32

An important organ in fish for the assessment of toxicologic effects is...

A. Gill

B. Eye

C. Fin

D. Barbels

A. Gill

33

Studies done on zebrafish have suggested that observed developmental toxicity is due to stimulation of the...

A. Estrogen receptor

B. Constitutive androstane receptor

C. Pregnane X receptor

D. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor

D. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor

34

The most common group of chemicals implicated in causing liver cancers in fish are...

A. Hormonal disrupters

B. Heavy metals

C. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons

D. Carbonate pesticides

C. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons

35

The microgram mass of a toxin in an organism per kilogram of lipid divided by the microgram mass of the toxin in a sediment per kilogram of carbon is called...

A. Bioconcentration factor

B. Sediment bioavailability

C. Food chain ratio

D. Biota sediment accumulation factor

D. Biota sediment accumulation factor