Chapter 7 - Developmental Toxicology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 - Developmental Toxicology Deck (59):
0

The percentage of major congenital defects at birth is estimated to be...

A. Less than 1%

B. 2-3%

C. 5-7%

D. None of the above

B. 2-3%

1

All of the following antimicrobials are human developmental toxicants except...

A. Penicillins

B. tetracyclines

C. Aminoglycosides

D. Fluconazole

A. Penicillins

2

All of the following metals are human developmental toxicants except...

A. Lithium

B. Lead

C. Organic mercury

D. Copper

D. Copper

3

All of the following infectious agents are human developmental toxicants except...

A. Rubella virus

B. influenza virus

C. Syphilis

D. Toxoplasmosis

B. influenza virus

4

All of the following are human developmental toxicants except...

A. Folic acid

B. ethanol

C. Cocaine

D. Tobacco smoke

A. Folic acid

5

The FDA protocol that primarily examines teratogenicity is...

A. Segment I

B. Segment II

C. Segment III

D. Segment IV

B. Segment II

6

Which of the following statements is true regarding concordance of findings of developmental toxicity between animals and humans?

A. Concordance is strongest when there are positive data from more than one species

B. Humans tend to be more sensitive than the most sensitive animal test species

C. The mouse and rat tend to be better test species than the rabbit

D. All of the above

D. All of the above

7

In the PDR, most drugs are listed as a "use in pregnancy" category...

A. A

B. B

C. C

D. D

C. C

8

All of the following are true regarding the sonic hedgehog pathway except...

A. SHH is primarily linked to transcription of tumor suppressor genes

B. Ligands for SHH require covalent binding of cholesterol

C. Mutations of the SHH gene can cause holoprosencephaly in mice and humans

D. The pathway was first discovered in Drosophila

A. SHH is primarily linked to transcription of tumor suppressor genes

9

The majority of congenital malformations in humans are due to...

A. Radiation

B. Infectious agents

C. Alcohol

D. Unknown factors

D. Unknown factors

10

Potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals on the ER include all of the following except...

A. Flutamine

B. methoxychlor

C. Chlordecone

D. Phytoestrogens

A. Flutamine

11

Potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals that antagonize the androgen receptor include all of the following except...

A. Vinclozolin

B. Finasteride

C. Bisphenol A

D. p,p DDE

C. Bisphenol A

12

The FDA protocol that primarily examines fertility and preimplementation and postimplementation viability is...

A. Segment I

B. Segment II

C. Segment III

D. Segment IV

A. Segment I

13

The FDA protocol that primarily examines postnatal survival, growth, and external morphology is...

A. Segment I

B. Segment II

C. Segment III

D. Segment IV

C. Segment III

14

Indirect toxicant developmental effects due to maternal toxicity include all of the following except...

A. Cocaine effect on uterine blood flow

B. ethanol effects on maternal folate

C. Thalidomide effects on angiogenesis in the offspring

D. Ethanol effects on maternal zinc

C. Thalidomide effects on angiogenesis in the offspring

15

All of the following maternal diseases have been asso w/ adverse pregnancy outcomes except...

A. Allergic rhinitis

B. Febrile illness during the first trimester

C. Hypertension

D. Diabetes mellitus

A. Allergic rhinitis

16

The incidence of neural tube defects in the offspring of pregnant women could be reduced by supplementation early in pregnancy with...

A. Niacin

B. Folate

C. Biotin

D. Riboflavin

B. Folate

17

All of the following are true of the developmental toxicity of cadmium except...

A. It appears to involve placental toxicity

B. It appears to involve inhibition of nutrient transport across the placenta

C. Zinc can affect the developmental toxicity of cadmium

D. Cadmium induces transferrin, which binds zinc in the placenta

D. Cadmium induces transferrin, which binds zinc in the placenta

18

All of the following are true regarding induction of metallothionein in pregnant rats except...

A. It can be caused by urethane, ethanol, or alpha-hederin

B. Induction is directly related to maternal zinc retention

C. High-dose vitamin C can prevent the induction

D. Induction is inversely related to zinc distribution to the offspring

C. High-dose vitamin C can prevent the induction

19

All of the following processes are necessary for a normally developing embryo except...

A. Apoptosis

B. Cell proliferation

C. Cell differentiation

D. Necrosis

D. Necrosis

20

Embryos deficient in p53...

A. Transform into choriocarcinoma

B. do not survive into organogenesis

C. Develop normally

D. None of the above

C. Develop normally

21

All of the following are true regarding toxicant effects on an embryo except...

A. Cellular predisposition to apoptosis can vary

B. The creation of a normal or malformed offspring depends on the cellular balance between damage and repair

C. Cellular insults to an embryo can include those affecting cell-cell interactions and energy metabolism

D. The developing heart is very sensitive to toxicant-induced apoptosis

D. The developing heart is very sensitive to toxicant-induced apoptosis

22

Advances in molecular biology that have helped understand the mechanisms involved in abnormal development are..

A. Cell staining and flow cytometry

B. Antisense oligonucleotides and knockout mice

C. Prion research and PCR technology

D. All of the above

B. Antisense oligonucleotides and knockout mice

23

Which of the following statements are true?

A. The mammalian embryo lacks P450 enzymes

B. The mammalian embryo has P450 activity comparable to the maternal liver

C. The mammalian embryo is incapable of metabolizing chemicals to active teratogens

D. None of the above

D. None of the above

24

All of the following statements are true except...

A. Mammalian developmental toxicology is considered a threshold event

B. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are safe during the first trimester

C. All epileptic women are at an increased risk for birth defects

D. Antiepileptic medications besides valproic acid are teratogens

B. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are safe during the first trimester

25

All of the following are true of the process of imprinting except...

A. It is not susceptible to toxicants

B. It occurs during gametogenesis

C. It involves cytosine methylation

D. It may be involved in paternally-mediated developmental toxicity

A. It is not susceptible to toxicants

26

All of the following statements are true except...

A. The blostocyst contains about 1,000 cells, however only a small # eventually form the embryo

B. Gastrulation is the process of the formation of 3 primary germ layers

C. The gastrulation period is not susceptible to teratogens

D. Chemicals affecting DNA synthesis and microtubule assembly are particularly toxic during the preimplantation period

C. The gastrulation period is not susceptible to teratogens

27

The fetal period is characterized by all of the following except...

A. Beginning of organ development

B. Tissue differentiation

C. Growth

D. Physiologic maturation

A. Beginning of organ development

28

Toxic exposure during the fetal period is likely to cause effects on...

A. Organogenesis

B. Implantation

C. Growth and maturation

D. All of the above

C. Growth and maturation

29

All of the following are true regarding tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy except...

A. Approx 25% of women continue to smoke during pregnancy

B. Nicotine is a neuroteratogen in experimental animals

C. Gene polymorphisms may place some mothers at increased risk of adverse fetal effects

D. Passive smoke is not a risk factor for adverse fetal effects

D. Passive smoke is not a risk factor for adverse fetal effects

30

All of the following are true of retinoid exposure during pregnancy except...

A. There is some evidence for a link to schizophrenia

B. Vitamin A is not a teratogen

C. The RXR alpha-receptor may play a role in cleft palate development

D. 13-cis-retinoic acid is a marketed drug that is FDA pregnancy category X.

B. Vitamin A is not a teratogen

31

Fetal malformations have occurred after pregnant mice have had brief (approx 6 hr) exposure immediately following fertilization to...

A. Ethylene oxide

B. Oxygen

C. Methane

D. Sulfur dioxide

A. Ethylene oxide

32

The concept of fetal programming means that the maternal developmental environment...

A. During the first 2 weeks of pregnancy will affect organogenesis

B. Can be manipulated to produce superior offspring

C. Can partially determine metabolic parameters in the offspring that will persist throughout life

D. All of the above

C. Can partially determine metabolic parameters in the offspring that will persist throughout life

33

When is the neural plate formed in the human body?

A. Days 15-17

B. Days 18-20

C. Days 21-24

D. Days 25-28

B. Days 18-20

34

All of the following were congenital abnormalities asso w/ thalidomide except...

A. Congenital heart disease

B. phocomelia

C. Hydrocephalus

D. Ear malformations

C. Hydrocephalus

35

The most sensitive species for assessing thalidomide congenital abnormalities is...

A. Mouse

B. Human

C. Rat

D. Hamster

B. Human

36

Thalidomide has been used in all of the following indications except...

A. Sleeping aid

B. emphysema

C. Treatment or oral ulcers in AIDS

D. Treatment of erythma nodosum leprosum

B. emphysema

37

DES was previously used in the United States to treat....

A. Morning Sickness

B. Preeclampsia

C. Gestational diabetes

D. Threatened Abortion

D. Threatened Abortion

38

Human male offspring of DES-exposed mothers have an increased incidence of all of the following except...

A. Low semen volume and poor semen quality

B. epididymal cysts

C. Hypotrophic testes

D. Prostate cancer

D. Prostate cancer

39

All of the following drugs are developmental toxicants except...

A. Penicillin

B. Valproic acid

C. Ethanol

D. Lead

A. Penicillin

40

All of the following are true of the fetal alcohol syndrome except...

A. Craniofacial dysmorphism

B. Intrauterine growth retardation

C. Impaired psychomotor development

D. Normal IQ

D. Normal IQ

41

Maternal tobacco smoking is asso. w/ what condition in the offspring?

A. Increased probability of twins

B. Undescended testicles

C. Vitiligo

D. Increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome


D. Increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome

42

All of the following are true of maternal cocaine exposure except....

A. Fetal cocaine exp can be estimated by chem analysis of fetal meconium

B. increased incidence of abruptio placentae

C. Increased incidence of phocomelia

D. Increased incidence of microcephaly

C. Increased incidence of phocomelia

43

Misoprostol during pregnancy can produce offspring with...

A. Hypothyroidism

B. situs inversis

C. Limb reduction defects

D. None of the above

C. Limb reduction defects

44

Which of the following is true of the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors during pregnancy?

A. Their effects are different from those of angiotensin receptor blockers

B. They are associated with neonatal renal failure

C. The adversely effect the fetus during the first trimester only

D. They are asso w/ adult-onset renal cell carcinoma in the offspring.

B. They are associated with neonatal renal failure

45

The period of organogenesis in humans is...

A. Days 21 to 56

B. Days 20 to 45

C. Days 15 to 32

D. Days 6 to 18

A. Days 21 to 56

46

All of the following statements are true except...

A. In mammals, the formation of the neural plate signals the onset of organogenesis

B. Some toxicants may produce growth retardation at low doses and lethality at high doses

C. Gametogenesis is the process of forming the sperm and egg germ cells

D. Mammalian developmental toxicity has generally been considered to be a non-threshold event

D. Mammalian developmental toxicity has generally been considered to be a non-threshold event

47

All of the following are normal physiological changes during pregnancy except...

A. Cardiac output can increase by 50%

B. Blood volume increases relative to red cell volume

C. Intestinal motility decreases

D. Systolic blood pressure increases

D. Systolic blood pressure increases

48

Which of the following statements are true?

A. Most drugs cross the placenta by simple passive diffusion

B. There is no pH difference between the maternal and embryonic plasma

C. The placentas of all mammals are very similar

D. The human placenta lacks drug-metabolizing enzymes

A. Most drugs cross the placenta by simple passive diffusion

49

Which of the following infectious agents is asso w/ human developmental toxicity?

A. Hepatitis C virus

B. Methicillin-resistant staph bacteria

C. Cytomegalovirus

D. Candida albicans vaginosis

C. Cytomegalovirus

50

Approx what percent of marketed drugs belong to FDA pregnancy category A?

A. 1%

B. 10%

C. 20%

D. 30%

A. 1%

51

Indomethacin is asso w/ ...

A. Spinal bifida

B. Premature closure of ductus arteriosus

C. Neonatal hypothyroidism

D. Fetal hydantoin syndrome

B. Premature closure of ductus arteriosus

52

Cocaine is asso w/ ...

A. Decreased uterine blood flow

B. staining of teeth

C. relatively safe

D. Spinal bifida

A. Decreased uterine blood flow

53

Phenytoin is asso w/ ...

A. Relatively safe

B. decreased uterine blood flow

C. Fetal hydantoin syndrome

D. Virilization of the female fetus

C. Fetal hydantoin syndrome

54

Ampicillin is asso w/ ...

A. Staining of teeth

B. spinal bifida

C. virilization of the female fetus

D. Relatively safe

D. Relatively safe

55

Aminodarone is asso w/ ...

A. Neonatal hypothyroidism

B. Fetal hydantoin syndrome

C. Staining of teeth

D. Spinal bifida

A. Neonatal hypothyroidism

56

Progestins are asso w/

A. Premature closure of the ductus arteriosus

B. staining of teeth

C. Virilization of the female fetus

D. Decreased uterine blood flow

C. Virilization of the female fetus

57

Valproic acid is asso w/....

A. Staining of teeth

B. premature closure of the ductus arteriosus

C. Neonatal hypothyroidism.

D. Spinal bifida

D. Spinal bifida

58

Tetracycline is asso w/ ...

A. Staining of teeth

B. decreased uterine blood flow

C. Relatively safe

D. Neonatal hypothyroidism

A. Staining of teeth