Chapter 24 - Radiation Toxicology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 24 - Radiation Toxicology Deck (24):
0

Beta particles are emitted with a continuous energy spectrum because of the simultaneous emission of a/an...

A. Protein

B. Gamma ray

C. X-ray

D. Antineutrino

D. Antineutrino

1

The most frequent type of DNA damage in mammalian cells produced by low LET radiation exposure is...

A. Double-strand breaks

B. Single-strand breaks

C. DNA-protein crosslinks

D. DNA dimers

B. Single-strand breaks

2

An example of a pure gamma ray emitter is..

A. Technetium 99m

B. Carbon 14

C. Sodium 22

D. Oxygen 16

A. Technetium 99m

3

Photons interact with matter in all of the following ways except...

A. Pair production

B. Dark energy production

C. Photoelectric effect

D. Compton effect

B. Dark energy production

4

Internal conversion produces...

A. An atom without an orbital electron

B. An atom of higher atomic number

C. An atom of lower atomic number

D. An electron from a gamma ray

A. An atom without an orbital electron

5

If a photon possesses energy of the order 1.02 MeV, it is capable of...

A. Splitting He atoms

B. Producing a positron and an electron

C. Converting a neutron into a proton and electron

D. Creating an alpha particle

B. Producing a positron and an electron

6

Which of the following has the least ability to penetrate the skin?

A. Beta particle

B. Neutron

C. X-ray

D. Gamma rays

A. Beta particle

7

Alpha particles are most dangerous when they...

A. Do not have relativistic velocities

B. Are produced from He

C. Are inhaled

D. Are in contact with the skin

C. Are inhaled

8

The biological effects of radiation are due to all of the following except...

A. Breaking hydrogen bonds

B. Free radical generation

C. Breaking covalent bonds

D. Forming coordination complexes with biological metals

D. Forming coordination complexes with biological metals

9

Combination of an inner-shell electron with a nuclear proton is called...

A. Electron capture

B. Positron emission

C. Beta-decay

D. None of the above

A. Electron capture

10

The occupational limits for radiation developed in a 1990 document by the Internal Commission on Radiation Protection are...

A. 100mSv in 5 yrs

B. 250mSv in 5 yrs

C. 500mSv in 5 yrs

D. 1 Sv in 5 yrs

A. 100mSv in 5 yrs

11

Much of the DNA damage from high LET (linear energy transfer) radiation...

A. Is readily repairable

B. Results from localized clusters of ionization

C. Occurs in many cells along a tract receiving a small dose

D. All of the above

B. Results from localized clusters of ionization

12

The late health effect of radium ingestion in radium dial painters was...

A. Acute myelogenous leukemia

B. Alpastic anemia

C. Osteogenic sarcoma

D. Multiple myeloma

C. Osteogenic sarcoma

13

Children under 18 at the time of the Chernobyl nuclear accident developed the greatest increase in the incidence of...

A. Lung cancer

B. Liver cancer

C. Thyroid cancer

D. Colon cancer

C. Thyroid cancer

14

The lung cancer risk in uranium miners is due to...

A. Uranium 234

B. Lead 214

C. Radon 226 and its decay products

D. Thorium 234

C. Radon 226 and its decay products

15

All of the following are true of indoor radon exposure except...

A. Open flames in a house produce a higher exposure

B. Urban areas have the same radon levels as rural areas

C. Smokers have a higher risk per unit of exposure

D. Particle size can change the dose delivered to the lungs

B. Urban areas have the same radon levels as rural areas

16

The largest percentage of natural background radiation that the human body receives is from...

A. Short-lived daughter isotopes of radon

B. Cosmic rays

C. Medical X-rays

D. Dietary intake of potassium 40

A. Short-lived daughter isotopes of radon

17

The largest amount of terrestrial background radiation comes from...

A. Nitrogen, oxygen and silicon

B. plutonium, thallium and technetium

C. Sodium, potassium and cesium

D. Uranium, thorium and potassium

D. Uranium, thorium and potassium

18

A process that creates the same product nuclei as position emission is...

A. Alpha decay

B. Gamma ray production

C. Electron capture

D. Beta decay

C. Electron capture

19

The characteristic of alpha particles which causes a high energy loss per path length and a high ionization density along the track length is called...

A. High Compton effect

B. High linear energy transfer

C. High photoelectric effect

D. High energy pair production

B. High linear energy transfer

20

Beta particles moving near the speed of light...

A. Have a wavelength in the visible range

B. Rarely interact with matter

C. Must have relativistic effects applied to them

D. Frequently decompose into gamma rays and neutrinos

C. Must have relativistic effects applied to them

21

The unit of absorbed dose for ionizing radiation is...

A. Rem

B. sievert

C. Rotegen

D. Gray

D. Gray

22

The unit of equivalent dose for ionizing radiation is...

A. Rem

B. Sievert

C. Rotegen

D. Gray

B. Sievert

23

The term-effective dose of ionizing radiation...

A. Is a dose that causes necrosis of particular cell types

B. Is the equivalent dose divided by the weight of body tissue

C. Allows for a direct comparison of the cancer risk from different partial or whole-body doses

D. Is a dose that kills greater than 99% of malignant cells in a particulat tissue

C. Allows for a direct comparison of the cancer risk from different partial or whole-body doses