Chapter 18 - Endocrine Toxicology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18 - Endocrine Toxicology Deck (52):
0

Secretory granules are unique to endocrine cells the produce...

A. Corticosteroids

B. Sex hormones

C. Peptide hormones

D. Aldosterone

C. Peptide hormones

1

The major inhibitory factor for prolactin release is...

A. Dopamine

B. TRH

C. FSH

D. GH

A. Dopamine

2

Vasopressin is synthesized primarily in...

A. Acidophils of the adenohypophysis

B. Basophils of the adenohypophysis

C. Chromophobes of the adenohypophysis

D. Supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus

D. Supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus

3

Lisuride and bromocriptine act as...

A. Seratonin agonists

B. Dopamine agonists

C. Cholinergic agonists

D. Dopamine antagonists

B. Dopamine agonists

4

The zona glomerulosa of the adreanal gland primarily produces...

A. Sex hormones

B. Aldosterone

C. Glucocorticoids

D. Catecholamines

B. Aldosterone

5

All of the following are true of the fetal adrenal cortex in primates except...

A. It produces dehydroepiandrosterone which is converted to estrogen by the placenta

B. Its tissue could be interpreted as a pathologic lesion in a histologic specimen from a neonatal primate

C. It produces parathyroid hormones

D. Following birth, it undergoes a rapid regression with replacement by cells of the postnatal adrenal cortex

C. It produces parathyroid hormones

6

All of the following are known to induce phospholipidosis except...

A. Phenobarbital

B. Chloroquine

C. Triparanol

D. Chlorphentermine

A. Phenobarbital

7

Cortexolone acts by...

A. Inhibiting the synthesis of adrenocorticoids

B. Blocking the release of adrenocorticoids

C. Inhibiting the synthesis of mineralcorticoids

D. Blocking the action of adrenocorticoids at peripheral sites

D. Blocking the action of adrenocorticoids at peripheral sites

8

An assessment of the function of the adrenal cortex is provided by all of the following except...

A. 24-hr urine for cortisol

B. 24-hr urine for metanephrine

C. Morning serum cortisol

D. Cortisol response to exogenous ACTH

B. 24-hr urine for metanephrine

9

The protein responsible for the transport of iodide into the thyroid follicular lumen is...

A. Activin

B. Pendrin

C. Transportin

D. Connexin

B. Pendrin

10

Thyroxine is bound to thyroxine-binding globulin in all of the following species except...

A. Monkeys

B. Rats

C. Humans

D. Dogs

B. Rats

11

The cellular mechanism and duration of action of thyroid hormones is similar to...

A. Prostaglandins

B. Cytokines

C. Steroid hormones

D. Leukotrienes

C. Steroid hormones

12

Sensitive species for the development of goiters after sulfonamide exposure include all of the following except...

A. Rat

B. Mouse

C. Dog

D. Guinea pig

D. Guinea pig

13

The most common endocrine neoplasm in humans is...

A. Pituitary carcinoma

B. Adrenal carcinoma

C. Parathyroid carcinoma

D. Thyroid carcinoma

D. Thyroid carcinoma

14

Increased incidence of thyroid C cell tumors in rats was reported with...

A. A glucagon-like peptide receptor agonist

B. An ACTH antagonist

C. A dopamine agonist

D. An estrogen antagonist

A. A glucagon-like peptide receptor agonist

15

Mutations in the ret proto-oncogene are involved in the hereditary form of ...

A. Parathyroid carcinoma

B. adrenal cortex carcinoma

C. Medullar thyroid carcinoma

D. Islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas

C. Medullar thyroid carcinoma

16

Five percent of extracellular calcium is complexed to all of the following except...

A. Chloride ion

B. Citrate ion

C. Phosphate ion

D. Biocarbonate ion

A. Chloride ion

17

A drug causes and increased incidence of ovarian tumor in mice in a 2-year study is...

A. Imipenem

B. Doxycycline

C. Clindamycin

D. Nitrofurantoin

D. Nitrofurantoin

18

All of the following would lead to increased ovarian tumorigenesis in mice except...

A. Exogenous estrogen administration

B. Cytotoxic drugs or radiation

C. Genetic absence of ovarian follicles

D. Autoimmune destruction of oocyte

A. Exogenous estrogen administration

19

Experimental diabetes mellitus in animals can be produced by destroying beta cells with...

A. Chloramphenicol

B. Streptozocin

C. Phenylbutazone

D. Phenyramidol

B. Streptozocin

20

All of the following drugs have been asso w/ acute pancreatitis except...

A. Propanolol

B. Azathioprine

C. Thiazides

D. Lisinopril

A. Propanolol

21

Hormones secreted from the islet of Langerhans in the pancreas include all of the following except...

A. Insulin

B. Somatostatin

C. Gastrin

D. Glucagon

C. Gastrin

22

All of the following inhibit adrenocortical steroid biosynthesis except...

A. Metyapone

B. Lithium

C. Aminoglutethimide

D. Mitotane (o'p'-DDD)

B. Lithium

23

Tests that assess the metabolic effects of thyroid hormone include all of the following except...

A. Systolic time interval

B. Aspartate transferase

C. Basal metabolic rate

D. Serum cholesterol.

B. Aspartate transferase

24

Actions of vasopressin include all of the following except...

A. Vasoconstriction

B. Calcium excretion

C. Free water reabsorption

D. Corticotropin secretion

B. Calcium excretion

25

All of the following are asso w oxytocin except...

A. Enhanced sexual arousal in males

B. Incerased tolerance to pain

C. Reduced anxiety

D. Uterine relaxation in late labor

D. Uterine relaxation in late labor

26

All of the following will increase growth hormone levels except...

A. Arginine

B. L-Dopa

C. Somatostatin

D, clonidine

C. Somatostatin

27

Which of the following hormone-effect pairs is incorrect?


A. ACTH-secretion of glucacorticoids

B. Prolactin-synthesis of melanin

C. TSH-secretion of thyroid hormone

D. Growth hormone-promotes growth

B. Prolactin-synthesis of melanin

28

Which of the following hormone-chemical class pairs is incorrect?

A. Prostaglandins-fatty acids

B. Insulin-protein

C.THR-biogenic amines

D. Estrogen-steroids

C.THR-biogenic amines

29

All of the following are true regarding calcium in the human body except...

A. The cytosolic calcium conc is 10,000 x higher than the extracellular fluid conc

B. 90% of body calcium is present in bone

C. Free calcium in serum will increase the presence of acidosis

D. Protein-bound calcium is predominantly on albumin

A. The cytosolic calcium conc is 10,000 x higher than the extracellular fluid conc

30

Which of the following will affect the parathyroid glands the least?

A. Ozone

B. Aluminum

C. L-asparaginase

D. Sulfur dioxide

D. Sulfur dioxide

31

A drug/chemical that appears to cause an increased incidence of parathyroid adenocarcinomas in rats is...

A. Aminodarone

B. minocycline

C. Nicardipine

D. Rotenone

D. Rotenone

32

Recombinant human parathyroid hormone...

A. Is a treatment for hypercalcemia

B. is asso w/ osteosarcoma in rats

C. Is a treatment for Paget's disease

D. Is asso w/ hypertension in humans

B. is asso w/ osteosarcoma in rats

33

All of the following are true of parathyroid hormone-related protein except...

A. It is present in human tumors

B. It plays a role in Ca balance in the fetus

C. It has no structural similarity to parathyroid hormone

D. It is found in high conc. in milk

C. It has no structural similarity to parathyroid hormone

34

A contaminant of drinking water from combustible products that can inhibit the transport of iodide into the thyroid is...

A. Sulfuric acid

B. Lead

C. Perchlorate

D. None of the above

C. Perchlorate

35

Chemicals/drugs that inhibit the organification of thyroglobulin include all of the following except...

A. Thiourea

B. Sulfonamides

C. Methimazole

D. Furosemide

D. Furosemide

36

A xenobiotic that inhibits thyroid hormone release is...

A. Atrazide

B. Lithium

C. DDT

D. Arsenic

B. Lithium

37

Which of the following statements is not correct?

A. Phenobarbital treatment in rats can increase serum TSH by inducing glucuronidation enzymes

B. Phenobarbital is a thyroid gland tumor promoter in some animal studies

C. Epileptic patients on phenobarbital do not have an increased risk of thyroid neoplasms

D. Epileptic patients on phenobarbital have an increased risk of liver neoplasms

D. Epileptic patients on phenobarbital have an increased risk of liver neoplasms

38

Mechanisms of toxicity to the adrenal cortex include all of the following except..

A. Activation of the fetal adrenal gland

B. Impaired steroidogenesis

C. Toxin-activation by P450 enzymes

D. Lipidosis-producing chemicals

A. Activation of the fetal adrenal gland

39

Captopril is...

A. An inhibitor of cholesterol ACYL transferase

B. An inhibitor of 21-alpha hydroxylase

C. An inhibitor of tryosine hydroxylase

D. An inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme

D. An inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme

40

Adrenal medullary proliferation tumors are called...

A. Adrenal adenomas

B. Pheochromocytomas

C. Mesotheliomas

D. None of the above

B. Pheochromocytomas

41

A xenobiotic asso w/ causing pituitary tumors in humans is...

A. Phenobarbital

B. Bromocriptine

C. Cobalt

D. None of the above

D. None of the above

42

The active transport of iodide anion can be inhibited by...

A. Thiocyanate

B. Bicarbonate

C. Lactate

D. Acetate

A. Thiocyanate

43

A food additive that causes inhibition of 5'-monodeiodinase in the rat is...

A. Red dye #3

B. Orange B

C. Yellow #5

D. Blue #1

A. Red dye #3

44

Papillary thyroid carcinoma in humans is strongly related to...

A. Polio virus

B. Rifampin

C. Radiation exposure

D. TCDD

C. Radiation exposure

45

The observed gender differences in thyroid cancer prevalence in humans suggests that...

A. Androgens play a role in tumorigenesis

B. Estrogens play a role in tumorigenesis

C. Body weight plays a role in tumorigenesis

D. Age plays a role in tumorigenesis

B. Estrogens play a role in tumorigenesis

46

Thyroid C cells are known to have receptors for hormones produced in...

A. Adrenal medulla

B. CNS

C. Gastrointestinal tract

D. Kidney

C. Gastrointestinal tract

47

Calcium conc in body fluids is regulated by all of the following except...

A. Calcitonin

B. Vitamin D

C. Parathyroid hormone

D. Angiotensin II

D. Angiotensin II

48

The most common endocrine organ to be affected by chemicals is...

A. Pancreas

B. Parathyroid gland

C. Adrenal gland

D. Pituitary gland

C. Adrenal gland

49

Pituitary tumors in rats are caused by...

A. Hydrocortisone

B. Calcitonin

C. Angiotensin II

D. None of the above

B. Calcitonin

50

Which of the following is true regarding Leydig cell tumors?

A. They are the most common testicular neoplasm in humans

B. They are caused by xenobiotics with androgen agonist activity

C. 90% of human tumors are malignant

D. The rat is an inappropriate model for assessing risk of xenobiotic-induced tumors in humans

D. The rat is an inappropriate model for assessing risk of xenobiotic-induced tumors in humans

51

All of the following are true of raloxifene except...

A. It is asso w/ increased risk of ovarian cancer in women

B. It is an estrogen agonist on bone and estrogen antagonist on breast

C. It increases circulating LH levels in mice

D. It is asso w/ ovarian tumor development in mice

A. It is asso w/ increased risk of ovarian cancer in women