Chapter 16 - Respiratory Toxicology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 - Respiratory Toxicology Deck (60):
0

Respiratory tract mucus has all of the following functions except...

A. Acid neutralizing

B. bronchodilation

C. Free radical scavenging

D. Antioxidant

B. bronchodilation

1

All of the following species inhale through the nose and mouth except...

A. Mouse

B. dogs

C. Monkeys

D. Humans

A. Mouse

2

Surfactant is produced in...

A. Mucus producing cells

B. clara cells

C. AE I cells

D. AE II cells

D. AE II cells

3

All of the following are true of AE I cells except...

A. They cover approx 90% of the alveolar surface

B. they can show preferential damage by toxic agents

C. They have an attenuated cytoplasm

D. They are cuboidal in shape

D. They are cuboidal in shape

4

The respiratory tract mucus may be dissolved in a fluid produced by...

A. Macrophages

B. serous cells

C. AE I cells

D. AE II cells

B. serous cells

5

In adult humans, the tidal volume is approx...

A. 200 ml

B. 500 ml

C. 1000 ml

D. 150 ml

B. 500 ml

6

Increased lung deposition of particles from polluted air can occur...

A. During exercise

B. in emphysema

C. In congestive heart failure

D. In pulmonary edema

A. During exercise

7

A toxicant will come in contact with the pulmonary capillary bed before the liver during all of the following routes of admin. except...

A. Inhalation

B. intravenous

C. Subcutaneous

D. Through a gastric-nasal tube

D. Through a gastric-nasal tube

8

All of the following can decrease the diffusion of gases across the alveolar surface except...

A. Pulmonary edema

B. interstitial fibrosis

C. Pulmonary inflammation

D. Pulmonary embolus

D. Pulmonary embolus

9

All of the following statements are true except...

A. Epoxide hydrolase can be found in lung and nasal tissue

B. the highest level of P450 enzymes is found in type 1 alveolar cells

C. There are different patterns of induction of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in lung and liver

D. Flavin monooxygenases and prostaglandin synthase are present in lung

B. the highest level of P450 enzymes is found in type 1 alveolar cells

10

The gas that is the least water-soluble and can pass most efficiently through the respiratory tract is...

A. CO

B. O3

C. NO2

D. SO2

A. CO

11

Particles trapped in the nasopharyngeal region are usually of mass-median aerodynamic diameter....

A. > 5um

B. 0.2 - 5 um

C. 100 nm - 200 nm

D. < 100 nm

A. > 5um

12

All of the following are true regarding nanoparticles except...

A. They are defined as particles with a diameter >100 nm

B. Nanospheres may be more toxic than nanotubes of the same MMAD

C. They have an extremely high surface area relative to their mass

D. Technologies that produce decreased emissions of larger particles may produce increased amts of nanoparticles

B. Nanospheres may be more toxic than nanotubes of the same MMAD

13

A fiber with a length of 200 um and a diameter of 1 um will be deposited in the airway mostly by the process of...

A. Diffusion

B. sedimentation

C. Impaction

D. Interception

D. Interception

14

An increase in random motion of a submicrometer particle by Brownian motion of air molecules will increase the deposition of the particle by the process of...

A. Diffusion

B. sedimentation

C. Impaction

D. Interception

A. Diffusion

15

The deposition of particles in the respiratory tract is increased by...

A. Breath holding

B. exercise

C. Bronchoconstriction

D. All of the above

D. All of the above

16

Lung damage from the production of secondary reaction products such as aldehydes and hydroxyperoxides is characteristic of...

A. HCl

B. ammonia

C. Ozone

D. Lead

C. Ozone

17

Free radical-mediated damage to the lung is caused by all of the following except...

A. Ozone

B. nitrogen dioxide

C. Tobacco smoke

D. Carbon monoxide

D. Carbon monoxide

18

Unstable reactive free radicals and ROS produced inthe lung by toxicants include all of the following except...

A. OH

B. ONOO

C. O2-

D. Na+

D. Na+

19

Which of the following cells is least likely to produce ROS in the lungs?

A. Plasma cell

B. neutrophil

C. Monocyte

D. Macrophage

A. Plasma cell

20

Bronchoconstriction is produced by all of the following except...

A. Cigarette smoke

B. increased intracellular cGMP

C. Increased intracellular cAMP

D. Irritant air pollution

C. Increased intracellular cAMP

21

In terms of gas exchange in the lungs, which of the following pairs of pulmonary pathologies are most similar?

A. Bronchoconstriction and PF

B. pulmonary edema and bronchoconstriction

C. Pulmonary edema and PF

D. Pulmonary embolus and PF

C. Pulmonary edema and PF

22

A hypothesis for the etiology of toxicant-induced emphysema is that inflammatory cells increase the burden of...

A. ROS

B. Elastase

C. Histamine

D. NO

B. Elastase

23

In a fibrotic reaction to toxicants, the human lung response most closely resembles...

A. IPF

B. emphysema

C. Allergic alveolitis

D. Infant respiratory distress syndrome

D. Infant respiratory distress syndrome

24

The observed increase in the prevalence of asthma is thought to be related to...

A. Increased viability of premature infants

B. air pollution

C. Increased use of beta-blocking drugs

D. Better reporting methods

B. air pollution

25

All of the following are probable human lung carcinogens except...

A. Sulfur dioxide

B. arsenic

C. Nickel

D. Chromium

A. Sulfur dioxide

26

The incidence of nasal carcinoma is increased in all of the following occupations except...

A. Nickel refining

B. chromate workers

C. Jewelers

D. Mustard gas workers

C. Jewelers

27

All of the following are found in children exposed to passive smoke except...

A. Increased asthma

B. increased seizure disorders

C. Increased pneumonia

D. Increased middle ear infections

B. increased seizure disorders

28

Which of the following toxicant-lung disease pairs is incorrect?

A. Aluminum dust-interstitial fibrosis

B. cadmium oxide-emphysema

C. Beryllium-interstitial granulomatosis

D. Isocyanates-lung cancer

D. Isocyanates-lung cancer

29

Which of the following statements regarding fiber size and asbestos-related lung disease is incorrect?

A. To cause mesothelioma, fiber must be greater than 2 um

B. Lung cancer is asso w/ fibers larger than 10 um long

C. Asbestosis is asso w/ fibers 2 um long

D. Mesothelioma is asso w/ fibers 5 um long

A. To cause mesothelioma, fiber must be greater than 2 um

30

The underlying mechanism for pulmonary fibrosis in chronic silicosis involves...

A. Antigen-antibody complexes

B. bronchospasm

C. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages

D. Increased interstitial edema

C. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages

31

Pulmonary edema is caused by acute exposure to all of the following except...

A. Ozone

B. asbestos

C. NO2

D. Beryllium

B. asbestos

32

Reduced glutathione levels in BALF may indicate...

A. Bronchial asthma

B. oxidative stress

C. Congestive heart failure

D. Enzyme induction

B. oxidative stress

33

Particles with a MMAD greater than 10 um are usually...

A. Dust from the Earth's crust

B. smoke particles

C. Metal fumes

D. Nanoparticles

A. Dust from the Earth's crust

34

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is caused by all of the following except...

A. Thermoactinomycetes vulgaris

B. talc

C. Toluene diisocyanate

D. Trimellitic anhydride

B. talc

35

Metals implicated in metal fume fever include all of the following except?

A. Gold

B. Zinc

C. Copper

D. Magnesium

A. Gold

36

Symptoms of metal fume fever resemble...

A. Acute asthmatic attack

B. Flu-like illness

C. Pulmonary edema

D. Emphysema

B. Flu-like illness

37

A group of conditions that characterize the lung's reaction to the chronic deposition of mineral dust into the lungs are called...

A. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis

B. bronchospastic disorders

C. Inhalation fever

D. Pneumoconioses

D. Pneumoconioses

38

A food that has been implicated in causing bronchiolitis obliterans and obstructive patterns on spirometry in workers is...

A. Cinnamon

B. diacetyl in popcorn flavoring

C. Powdered sugar

D. Nutmeg

B. diacetyl in popcorn flavoring

39

Pleural plaques are a common marker for exposure to...

A. coal dust

B. zinc oxide fumes

C. Asbestos

D. Engine dust

C. Asbestos

40

All of the following are mediators of airway smooth muscle tone except...

A. Histamine

B. aldosterone

C. Leukotriene

D. Nitric oxide

B. aldosterone

41

Emphysema is defined as...

A. An abnormal enlargement of distal airspaces without obvious fibrosis

B. an abnormal contraction of distal airspaces with fibrotic walls

C. Fibrotic thickening of alveoli with normal airspace size

D. An abnormal amount of mucus secretion from the proximal bronchi

A. An abnormal enlargement of distal airspaces without obvious fibrosis

42

Lung disease caused by particles is asso w/ ...

A. Talc

B. Silica

C. Asbestos

D. All of the above

D. All of the above

43

A blood test that assesses pulmonary function is...

A. Arterial blood gas

B. blood urea nitrogen

C. Tryptase

D. All of the above

A. Arterial blood gas

44

Exposure to what gas usually doesn't go futher than the nose...

A. Ozone

B. hydrogen sulfide

C. Sulfur dioxide

D. Nitrogen dioxide

C. Sulfur dioxide

45

Pulmonary toxicity has been asso w/ all of the following threapeutic agents except...

A. Cyclophosphamide

B. theophylline

C. Bleomycin

D. Carmustine

B. theophylline

46

Ammonia, chlorine and formaldehyde produce upper respiratory tract initiation because...

A. They are highly water soluble

B. they are metabolized by sinus cells to reactive toxicants

C. They form droplets that settle in the upper airways

D. They have such noxious odor that the victim holds his breath

A. They are highly water soluble

47

Toxicants present in cigarette smoke include all of the following except...

A. Naphtalene

B. free radicals

C. Benzopyrene

D. Phosgene

D. Phosgene

48

Occupational exposure to all of the following metals has been asso w/ increased risk of lung cancer except...

A. Nickel

B. cadmium

C. Zinc

D. Beryllium

C. Zinc

49

Which of the following is the most water-insoluble gas?

A. Sulfur dioxide

B. ozone

C. Hydrogen sulfide

D. Nitrogen dioxide

C. Hydrogen sulfide

50

Association: asbestos with

A. Bronchiolitis obliterans

B. pleural mesothelioma

C. Emphysema

D. Occupational asthma

B. pleural mesothelioma

51

Association: cadmium oxide with

A. Sarcoidosis

B. interstitial fibrosis

C. Emphysema

D. Eggshell calcification

C. Emphysema

52

Association: aluminum dust with...

A. Interstitial fibrosis

B. occupational asthma

C. Highly water-soluble

D. Sarcoidosis

A. Interstitial fibrosis

53

Association: Polyterafluoroethylene combustion with...

A. Pleural mesothelioma

B. BO

C. PF

D. Polymer fume fever

D. Polymer fume fever

54

Association: ammonia with...

A. Water-solubility

B. squamous cell carcinoma

C. Occupational asthma

D. Eggshell calcification

A. Water-solubility

55

Association: silicosis with...

A. Sarcoidosis

B. emphysema

C. Eggshell calcification

D. Nasal squamous cell carcinoma

C. Eggshell calcification

56

Association: nickel refining with...

A. Emphysema

B. PF

C. BO

D. Nasal squamous cell carcinoma

D. Nasal squamous cell carcinoma

57

Association: beryllium with...

A. Sarcoidosis

B. pleural mesothelioma

C. Emphysema

D. Occupational asthma

A. Sarcoidosis

58

Association: isocyanates with...

A. BO

B. PF

C. Occupational asthma

D. Polymer fume fever

C. Occupational asthma

59

Association: oxides of nitrogen with...

A. BO

B. mesothelioma

C. Water-solubility

D. Eggshell calcifications

A. BO