Chapter 27 - Food Toxicology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 27 - Food Toxicology Deck (51):
0

The major concern for food safety worldwide is...

A. Unregulated food additives

B. Geographic variation in soil

C. Microbial contamination

D. Radiation of food

C. Microbial contamination

1

The basic presumption of the US regarding food is...

A. All food w/o additives or contaminants is safe

B. Food from plant sources is safe

C. Food must be periodically tested for safety

D. Food additives before 1980 are safe

A. All food w/o additives or contaminants is safe

2

Tripalmitin has been shown to...

A. Increas gastric pH

B. Increase intestinal transit time

C. Decrease gastric emptying

D. Increase lymph flow

D. Increase lymph flow

3

GRAS substances added to food...

A. Are all food colors

B. Can be certified based on experience before 1958

C. Can include pesticides

D. Must have an upper limit

B. Can be certified based on experience before 1958

4

Unavoidable contaminants to food...

A. Have a tolerance limit

B. Include pesticide residues

C. Include aflatoxins

D. All of the above

D. All of the above

5

Which of the following is true for color food additives?

A. They all contain the prefix FD or C

B. They must come from plants

C. They interact with antihypertensive medication

D. They are not eligible for GRAS status

D. They are not eligible for GRAS status

6

The principal reason for the low toxicity of aromatic amine color food additives is...

A. Sulfonation to highly polar, poorly absorbable molecules

B. They decompose in the acid environment of the stomach

C. They are substrates for intestinal efflux transporters

D. The parent compounds are incapable of forming electrophiles

A. Sulfonation to highly polar, poorly absorbable molecules

7

Caramel is considered...

A. A food color additive that is exempt from certification

B. A food color additive that requires individual batch chemical analysis

C. A food color adjunct

D. A flavor enhancer

A. A food color additive that is exempt from certification

8

Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is considered...

A. An emulsifier

B. A buffering agent

C. A preservative

D. A dough strengthener

C. A preservative

9

All of the following are nonnutritive sweetners except...

A. Asesulfame

B. Aspartame

C. Saccharin

D. Gum arabic

D. Gum arabic

10

Sodium benzoate is used in foods as...

A. A processing aid

B. A firming agent

C. An antimicrobial agent

D. A drying agent

C. An antimicrobial agent

11

All of the following are true of food color additives except...

A. 50% of food in the US contains a color additive

B. The average daily intake is about 15 mg

C. The maximum daily intake is about 54 mg

D. Beverages contain a large quantity

A. 50% of food in the US contains a color additive

12

The NOAEL divided by 100 for a food additive is a starting point for...

A. Chronic animal toxicity studies

B. GRAS tolerance limits

C. Estimated daily intake

D. Acceptable daily intake

D. Acceptable daily intake

13

A food additive containing a alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl function would most likely assigned to structure category...

A. A

B. B

C. C

D. D

C. C

14

In utero testing of food additives began because of problems with...

A. BHA

B. saccharin

C. FD&C Blue No. 1

D. Papain

B. saccharin

15

Indirect food additives...

A. Are produced from microbial contamination of food

B. Enter food from surfaces that contact food

C. Are chemicals that result from the transformation of food substances by the cooking process

D. All of the above

B. Enter food from surfaces that contact food

16

Significant migration of indirect food additives in extraction studies is defined as...

A. 0.1 - 1 ppb

B. 1 - 10 ppb

C. 10 - 50 ppb

D. 50 - 100 ppb

D. 50 - 100 ppb

17

All of the following are considered GRAS except...

A. Patulin

B. Helium

C. Acetic acid

D. Aluminum calcium silicate

A. Patulin

18

All of the following are true of GRAS status except...

A. It is based on safety as assessed by common knowledge throughout the scientific community

B. It can be based on experiences with common use in food before Jan. 1, 1958

C. GRAS substances are still subject to the Delaney Clause

D. New data can change the GRAS status of a substance

C. GRAS substances are still subject to the Delaney Clause

19

Which of the following is true regarding dietary supplements?

A. They are considered food additives

B. They are considered drugs

C. The daily recommended intake is not stated on the product label

D. There is an implied assumption of some risk on the part of the consumer

D. There is an implied assumption of some risk on the part of the consumer

20

The Delaney Clause applies to all of the following except...

A. Unavoidable contaminants

B. Food additives

C. Color additives

D. Animal drugs

A. Unavoidable contaminants

21

The DES proviso of the Delaney Clause...

A. Restricts endocrine disruptors in animal feed

B. Allows for carcinogens in animal feed if there is no residue in the animal tissue

C. Allows for DES in animal feed at a level below the NOAEL for feminizing the male fetus

D. None of the above

B. Allows for carcinogens in animal feed if there is no residue in the animal tissue

22

All of the following have been banned food additives because of the Delaney Clause except...

A. Flectol H

B. Safrole

C. Xylitol

D. Thiourea

C. Xylitol

23

The reasoning behind why a chemical like sorbitol, which is listed as a carcinogen in some databases, is still listed by the FDA as a food additive is...

A. Only animal and no human evidence for carcinogenicity

B. It was found to be safe before 1958

C. Threshold dose-response has been confirmed and is above average daily intake

D. Cancer is caused by secondary carcinogenesis

D. Cancer is caused by secondary carcinogenesis

24

All of the following are true of food idiosyncrasy except...

A. It may have a genetic basis

B. Lactose intolerance is an example

C. Peanut allergy is not an example

D. Immune mechanisms are involved

D. Immune mechanisms are involved

25

Which of the following drug-food interaction pair is incorrect?

A. Cyclosporin-grapefruit juice

B. MAO inhibitors-cheese

C. Vitamin C-carrots

D. Tertacycline-milk

C. Vitamin C-carrots

26

All of the following food-allergic protein pairs is correct except...

A. Egg whites-ovomucoid

B. Peanuts-Ara h II

C. Egg yolks-livetin

D. Cow's milk-gluten

D. Cow's milk-gluten

27

A reaction to tuna or mackerel that appears like an allergic reaction would most likely be classified as...

A. Idiosyncratic

B. anaphylactoid

C. Food poisoning

D. Food anaphylaxis

B. anaphylactoid

28

Food anaphylaxis is most common with...

A. Peas

B. Soybeans

C. Peanuts

D. Lentils

C. Peanuts

29

Hemolysis has been associated with ingestion of...

A. Fava beans

B. chocolate

C. Asparagus

D. Rice

A. Fava beans

30

Red urine that can mimic hematuria can be caused by...

A. Red wine

B. red beets

C. Red cabbage

D. Red onions

B. red beets

31

In sensitive individuals exposed to sulfites, a deficiency of sulfite oxidase can produce...

A. Hypertension

B. diarrhea

C. Bronchospasm

D. Mental confusion

C. Bronchospasm

32

All of the following food-CYP450 enzyme interaction pairs are correct except...

A. Cheese-2D6

B. Watercress-2E1

C. Grapefruit juice-3A4

D. Charred meat-1A2

A. Cheese-2D6

33

All of the following food-metabolite interaction pairs are correct except...

A. Cabbage-goiter

B. licorice-hypertension

C. Polar bear liver-vitamin A toxicity

D. Cycad flour-toxic epidermal necrolysis

D. Cycad flour-toxic epidermal necrolysis

34

Isothiocyanates and thiocyanates are present the least in...

A. Mustard

B. Broccoli

C. Horseradish

D. Potato

D. Potato

35

All of the following mycotoxin-effect pairs are correct except..

A. Trichothecenes-hematopoetic toxicity

B. Fumonisins-cardiac beriberi

C. Ochratoxin-nephropathy

D. Zearaleones-estrogen effects

B. Fumonisins-cardiac beriberi

36

Solanine and chaconine are produced in...

A. Broccoli

B. Cabbage

C. Potato

D. Corn

Potato

37

Trans fat has been found to...

A. Increase blood glucose

B. Raise HDL cholesterol

C. Raise LDL cholesterol

D. Raise blood pressure

C. Raise LDL cholesterol

38

The toxin in amnesic shellfish poisoning resembles...

A. Glycine

B. Dopamine

C. Acetylcholine

D. Glutamate

D. Glutamate

39

All of the following are true regarding tetrodotoxin except...

A. It can be present in puffer fish, frogs and octopus

B. It works by increasing inward Na ion movement in the neuron

C. It is associated with the presence of cretain bacteria

D. It is stable in boiling water

B. It works by increasing inward Na ion movement in the neuron

40

Iodine excess could result from consuming large amts of...

A. Cod

B. Kelp

C. Goat's milk

D. Soybeans

B. Kelp

41

In the US, the regulation of pesticide residues is under the jurisdiction of the...

A. EPA

B. FDA

C. OSHA

D. NAS

A. EPA

42

The highest amt of dietary arsenic comes from the consumption of...

A. Red meat

B. Poultry

C. Seafood

D. Cow's milk

C. Seafood

43

Well water can be a significant source of...

A. Perchlorate

B. Sulfite

C. Thiocyanate

D. Nitrate

D. Nitrate

44

All of the following are true regarding N-nitrosoproline except...

A. It is a definite human carcinogen

B. it is a nitrosoamine

C. It is excreted unchanged in the urine

D. It is common in humans

A. It is a definite human carcinogen

45

The major complication of Half disease is...

A. Rhabdomyolysis

B. Liver failure

C. Congestive heart failure

D. Pulmonary fibrosis

A. Rhabdomyolysis

46

All of the following are true regarding botulinum toxin except...

A. It is heat resistant to 150 C

B. It is a Zn metalloprotein

C. The lethal dose is approx 1 ng

D. It is strongly similar to tetanus toxin

A. It is heat resistant to 150 C

47

A common feature of toxins produced by C. perfringens, E. coli and B. cereus is...

A. Respiratory paralysis

B. Clotting abnormalities

C. Diarrheal illness

D. TSS

C. Diarrheal illness

48

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is cause by a...

A. Protozoa

B. Bacteria

C. Virus

D. Prion

D. Prion

49

Heterocyclic amines and acrylamide are food contaminants which...

A. Are produced by microorganisms

B. Are produced by the process of cooking

C. Are considered GRAS

D. Are residues from animal feeds

B. Are produced by the process of cooking

50

The concept of 'de minimus' as applied to food safety means...

A. Find the smallest harmful dose

B. Only food colors at 1/100 of the NOAEL can be used

C. Pesticide residues can be present at the ADL

D. The risk is so small it is of no concern

D. The risk is so small it is of no concern