Flashcards in Chapter 13 - The Rise of a Mass Democracy, 1824-1840 Deck (48)
Presidential candidate in 1824 and winner in 1828
Losing presidential candidate in 1824; Speaker of the House who got Adams elected; made plan to reduce Tariff of 1824 to 1816 levels over 10 years
John Quincy Adams
winning presidential candidate in 1824; created the Corrupt Bargain with Clay
Beginning in 1796, caucuses of the political parties’ congressional delegations met informally to nominate their presidential and vice presidential candidates, leaving the general public with no direct input. This early nomination system—dubbed “King Caucus” by its critics—evoked widespread resentment.
The charge make by Jacksonians in 1825 that Clay had supported John Quincy Adams in the House presidential vote in return for the office of Secretary of State. Clay knew he could not win, so he traded his votes for an office.
Nickname for Andrew Jackson, due to his toughness and rigidity.
slanderous political tactics in election time
Wife of Andrew Jackson, the 7th President of the United States.
Jackson's inaugural ball; he allowed anyone to come and had to flee b/c a riot ensued
nickname given to Jackson's first term
"To the victor go the spoils" - the winner of the election may do whatever they want with the staff, and they usually rewarded party loyalty with jobs, and fired the opposition. Jackson made more staff changes than any previous president, firing many people and replacing them with his own.
Tariff of Abominations (of 1828)
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights. It passed because New England favored high tariffs.
A mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston, South Carolina in 1822, but one of them betrayed him and he and his thirty-seven followers were hanged before the revolt started.
People who believed each state in the union could counter the tyranny of the majority by asserting the right to nullify an unconstitutional act of Congress. They support Vice President Calhoun’s South Carolina Exposition, which was written in reaction to the Tariff of 1828, which he said placed the Union in danger and stripped the South of its rights.
Tariff of 1833
compromise tariff that reduced the rates of the Tariff of 1828; drafted by Clay
1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
First Americans tribes that tried to assimilate into American society
Five Civilized Tribes
refers to five Native American nations—the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole. These are the first five tribes that Anglo-European settlers generally considered to be "civilized" according to their own world view, because these five tribes adopted attributes of the colonists' culture, for example, Christianity, centralized governments, literacy, market participation, written constitutions, intermarriage with white Americans, and plantation slavery practices.
Indian Removal Act/Trail of Tears
A minority of the Cherokee tribe, despite the protest of the majority, had surrendered their Georgia land in the 1835 Treaty of New Echota. During the winter of 1838 - 1839, troops under General Winfield Scott evicted them from their homes in Georgia and moved them to Oklahoma Indian country. Many died on the trail; the journey became known as the "Trail of Tears".
Area in modern day Oklahoma that was the destination for the Cherokee, as well as the other tribes that were removed under the Indian Removal Act.
The Bureau of Indian Affairs
1836 government branch set up to take care of the First Americans
Florida First American tribe that fought 7 years before giving into removal
Bank of the United States
The Second Bank of the U.S. was established in 1816 and was given more authority than the First Bank of the U.S. Bank loans were used to finance the American industrial revolution in the period after the War of 1812.
The Bank of the United States was chartered by Congress in 1791; it held government funds and was also commercial. It wasn't rechartered in 1811, but a second bank was established in 1816 (1/5 government owned). Jackson opposed it, saying it drove other banks out of business and favored the rich, but Clay favored it. Nicholas Biddle became the bank's president. He made the bank's loan policy stricter and testified that, although the bank had enormous power, it didn't destroy small banks. The bank went out of business in 1836 amid controversy over whether the National Bank was constitutional and should be rechartered.
The Anti-Masons sprang up as a reaction to the perceived elitism of the Masons, and the new party took votes from the Whigs, helping Jackson to win the election in 1832.
Pet banks were state banks into which Jackson deposited federal funds in 1833, after he vetoed the recharter of the Second Bank of the U.S., so called because people thought they were chosen on political grounds.
1863 - The Specie Circular, issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. The Circular required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
new name chosen by the former Democratic Republicans in the 1830s.
Whigs were conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Among the Whigs were Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and, for a while, Calhoun. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin.