Chapter 2 - The Planting of English America, 1500-1733 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - The Planting of English America, 1500-1733 Deck (37)
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1

Henry VIII

English king that in addition to executing all of his wives, and broke from the Catholic Church and started the Anglican Church, or the Church of England.

2

Queen Elizabeth

Protestant Queen that cemented England as a Protestant country.

3

Catholic Ireland

Tried to secure help from Spain to overthrow their English rulers. The uprising was crushed ruthlessly by the English.

4

Francis Drake

English “Sea Dog” who was essentially a pirate that worked for the English monarchy.

5

Sir Walter Raleigh

English explorer who set up the first English settlement in the New World at Roanoke, in modern day North Carolina. Roanoke vanished mysteriously.

6

Virginia

First colony, named for Queen Victoria. It was loosely defined geographically, and in theory stretched the whole way to California.

7

Spanish Armada

Built to take down the English. Was lost in a disastrous storm, and marked the beginning of the Spanish slide. This loss also guaranteed the seas would be ruled by the English.

8

Enclosure Movement

Time during the 1550s to 1600s that saw land owners fencing off the land, forcing many small farmers to either move to cities or the the New World. Was a push factor for settling the colonies.

9

Primogeniture

Practice of giving all of the family land to the eldest son. Drove many second or third sons to look for new lands in America. Was a push factor for settling the colonies. Walter Raleigh and Francis Drake were two famous people affected by this law.

10

Joint-stock company

Provided the money for English expedition to the New World, including the Virginia Company. Groups of investors could pool their money, and receive a portion of the profits.

11

Virginia Company

Company founded to start the Settlement of Jamestown and Virginia in order to make money by finding gold and the Northwest Passage.

12

Jamestown

First permanent English settlement, founded in 1606. The early years were a disaster, and the majority died of starvation or disease.

13

John Smith

Credited with saving the Jamestown experiment by instituting the policy “He who shall not work shall not eat.” Was “saved” by Pocahontas.

14

Powhatan

Chief of the native confederation surrounding the settlement of Jamestown.

15

Pocahontas

Daughter of Chief Powhatan, was used in the symbolic ritual of “saving” John Smith from execution. Worked as a translator and intermediary between her tribe and the English.

16

Starving Time

Winter of 1609-1610 in Jamestown. The population dwindled from 400 to 60 as crops and people died.

17

Lord De La Warr

Military dictator who arrived in Jamestown in 1610. He instituted military rule, saved the colony and began brutal wars with the local natives until they relocated to the North.

18

Powhatan's Confederacy

Loose grouping of about a dozen native tribes in the Chesapeake region that were under the control of Powhatan. They were the first major recipients of European-led eradication.

19

Anglo-Powhatan Wars

3 wars fought between English settlers of the Virginia Colony, and Indians of the Powhatan Confederacy in the early seventeenth century. First war lasted from 1610-14, the second from 1622-26, and the third and final war from 1644-46. After the last war, the Powhatans were considered an extinct tribe.

20

John Rolfe

Credited with the first successful cultivation of tobacco as an export crop in the Colony of Virginia.

21

Tobacco

The first cash crop grown in the New World, which single handedly saved the Jamestown experiment. The profits from tobacco spurred the use of first indentured servants and later African slavery.

22

House of Burgesses

The first legislature anywhere in the English colonies in America was in Virginia.

23

Lord Baltimore

Founder of Maryland colony. Was meant to be a safe harbor for Catholics in the New World.

24

Indentured Servants

Indentured servitude was a labor system in which people paid for their passage to the New World by working for an employer for a fixed term of years. The lack of land and opportunity for freed indentured servants was the major cause of Bacon’s Rebellion.

25

Act of Toleration

Passed by Maryland in 1649. Allowed toleration for ALL christian denominations in the colony, but punished Jews and atheists.

26

West Indies

Group of European controlled island colonies in the Caribbean primarily used to grow sugar cane. African “chattel” slavery took hold in these islands, and accounted for a huge amount of the total slave trade.

27

Sugar

Incredibly profitable plantation crop. Grew mostly in the Caribbean and Brazil, using African slave labor.

28

Barbados Slave Code

A law passed by the colonial English legislature to provide a legal base for slavery in the Caribbean island of Barbados. Became the basis for slavery in the United States.

29

Charles II

King of England after the “Restoration” that ended rule by Oliver Cromwell. The period of Cromwell’s rule had seen colony founding halt. Charles II brought it back, and increased government involvement.

30

Rice

One of the first staple crops of the new colonies. It was mostly grown along the Carolina coasts, and was one of the first major importers of African slaves.

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