Chapter 14 - Forging the National Economy, 1790-1860 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 - Forging the National Economy, 1790-1860 Deck (57)
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1

"Self-Reliance"

Ralph Waldo Emerson's popular lecture-essay that reflected the spirit of individualism pervasive in American popular culture during the 1830's.

2

Kentucky Bluegrass

a European bluegrass that thrived in charred canefields. Made good pastures for livestock

3

Rendezvous System

basis of the fur-trapping empire. Each summer, traders ventured from St. Louis to a Rocky Mountain valley and wait for trappers and Indians to arrive with beaver belts to swap with manufactured goods from the east.

4

George Catlin

A painter and student of Native American life who espoused the preservation of nature and pushed for it to become a deliberate national policy.

5

Irish and Germans

Irish: arriving in immense waves in the 1800's, they were extremely poor peasants who later became the manpower for canal and railroad construction. German: also came because of economic distress, German immigration had a large impact on America, shaping many of its morals. Both groups of immigrants were heavy drinkers and supplied the labor force for the early industrial era.

6

America Letters

Letters sent home by immigrants in America that often described in glowing terms the richer life in America compared to Europe

7

Molly Maguires

Secret organization of Irish miners that campaigned, at times violently, against poor working conditions in the PA mines

8

Tammany Hall

Political machine in New York, headed by Boss Tweed.

9

Paddy Wagons

Nickname given to police cars driven by Irish immigrants.

10

Twisting the British Lion's Tail

the term given to firing verbal volleys at London or the British in an attempt to gain the sympathy of the Irish. Coming from their oppressed state, the Irish immigrants were not quick to forget their British tormentors and maintained an anti-British sentiment even during their time in the United States

11

Carl Schurz

A German immigrant who eventually became an influential figure within American society. Typical of the German Forty-Eighters, Schurz shared the sentiments of those who immigrated because of the failed democratic revolution back in the motherland and thus had a liberal viewpoint

12

Conestoga Wagon

Wagons that were used to travel west, contributed by the Germans

13

Kindergarten

An example of German influence on American language and education. "Kinder" meaning children's and "garten" meaning garden.

14

Nativists

An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840's and 1850's in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics.

15

Order of the Star-Spangled Banner

A society formed in 1849 by the noisier American nativists. These radical thinkers wanted to take decisive political action in order to combat the growing influence of the immigrants

16

American (Know-Nothing) Party

Know- Nothings opposed immigration and Catholic influence. They answered questions from outsiders about the party by saying "I know nothing".

17

Potato Famine

the cause for many Irish to go to the US. The Irish were already under massive stress from British overloads but then a lot of the crop that they were dangerously dependent on, the potato, died of disease.

18

Famine Irish

generally too poor to move west and but the necessary land, livestock, and equipment so they swarmed to larger seaboard cities. They were seen as the bottom of the social ladder, along with free blacks, which is why they were generally cool towards the abolitionist movement. They were barely literate and forced to do labor work in areas such as canals and railroads. "No Irish Need Apply" (NINA) was a common sign outside of factory gates. Tended to remain in low-skill jobs but gradually began to obtain small amounts of property, which was a grand "success" for them.

19

Boss System

A locally controlled system of politics in which a small powerful group of people control the party and use political jobs as rewards.

20

Political Machines

Corrupt organized groups that controlled political parties in the cities. A boss leads the machine and attempts to grab more votes for his party.

21

Factory System

Method of production that brought many workers and machines together into one building.

22

Industrial Revolution

The industrial revolution had occurred in England in the 1700s, but it was not until the period industrial growth after the War of 1812 that the U.S. began to manufacture goods with the aid of factories and machines. New England, rather than the South, emerged as a manufacturing center because New England had many rivers to supply water power, plus a better system of roads and canals. The first major industry in New England was textiles.

23

Samuel Slater

When he emigrated from England to America in the 1790s, he brought with him the plans to an English factory. With these plans, he helped build the first factory in America.

24

Eli Whitney/Cotton Gin

1798 - He developed the cotton gin, a machine which could separate cotton form its seeds. This invention made cotton a profitable crop of great value to the Southern economy. It also reinforced the importance of slavery in the economy of the South.

25

King Cotton

Expression used by southern authors and orators before the Civil War t indicate economic dominance of the southern cotton industry, and that the north needed the south’s cotton. Coined by James Hammond.

26

Forty-Eighters

Liberal German refugees who fled failed democratic revolutions and came to America

27

Mennonites

Founded by Dutch leader Menno Simmons; became descendants of Anabaptists and emphasized pacifism

28

Milwaukee

City in Wisconsin that boomed with the arrival of German immigrants.

29

Amish

People of German origin who were originally Anabaptist and would settle in western Pennsylvania and eastern Ohio. Many today live the same way their ancestors did 200-300 years ago.

30

Interchangeable Parts

1799-1800 - Eli Whitney developed a manufacturing system which uses standardized parts which are all identical and thus, interchangeable. Before this, each part of a given device had been designed only for that one device; if a single piece of the device broke, it was difficult or impossible to replace. With standardized parts, it was easy to get a replacement part from the manufacturer. Whitney first put used standardized parts to make muskets for the U.S. government.

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