Chapter 3 - Settling the Northern Colonies, 1619-1700 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Settling the Northern Colonies, 1619-1700 Deck (44)
1

John Calvin

Founder of Calvinism, which emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.

2

Conversion Experience

Part of the Calvinist doctrine, that was a sign from God to his chosen few that revealed their destiny. They were expected to live as visible saints afterwards. This experience was necessary to be admitted to the early Puritan church as a full member.

3

Visible Saints

Term for someone who had experienced their “Conversion Experience” and was now a full part of the Puritan church.

4

Puritans

The Puritans were non-separatists who wished to adopt reforms to purify the Church of England. They received a right to settle in the Massachusetts Bay area from the King of England.

5

Separatists

Better known as the Pilgrims, they believed that the Church of England could not be reformed. Separatist groups were illegal in England, so the Pilgrims fled to America and settled in Plymouth.

6

Mayflower

The Mayflower was the ship that transported the first English Separatists, known today as the Pilgrims, from Plymouth to the New World in 1620.

7

Myles Standish

nglish military officer hired by the Pilgrims as military adviser for Plymouth Colony. He accompanied the Pilgrims on their journey on the Mayflower and subsequently Standish played a leading role in the administration and defense of Plymouth Colony from its inception.

8

Mayflower Compact

1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.

9

Plymouth

Chosen by the Pilgrims as the site of their first settlement. It supposed to be in the Virginia colony, but they were blown off course, and ended up in modern day Massachusetts.

10

William Bradford

A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.

11

Charles I

Led an anti-Puritan persecution in England that drove many Puritans to look for land elsewhere in the world.

12

Massachusetts Bay Colony

1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government.

13

Great Migration

The first major wave of immigrants to the New World. This one was in the 1630s, and consisted of 70,000 Puritans who left England. Not all came here, but many did.

14

John Winthrop

1629 - He became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, and served in that capacity from 1630 through 1649. A Puritan with strong religious beliefs. He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group of skillful leaders. He helped organize the New England Confederation in 1643 and served as its first president.

15

Freemen

Adult men who belonged to the Puritan congregations.

16

Bible Commonwealth

Slang term for the Massachusetts Bay Colony. This was due to the fact that only male Puritan church members could be part of the government. The entire purpose of the colony was to live a strict religious life.

17

John Cotton

Early clergy member of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

18

Protestant Ethic

Term that the Puritans gave their commitment to hard work and to engagement in “worldly pursuits”

19

Anne Hutchinson

She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.

20

Roger Williams

1635 - He left the Massachusetts colony and purchased the land from a neighboring Indian tribe to found the colony of Rhode Island. Rhode Island was the only colony at that time to offer complete religious freedom.

21

Thomas Hooker

Clergyman, one of the founders of Hartford. Called "the father of American democracy" because he said that people have a right to choose their magistrates.

22

Fundamental Orders

Set up a unified government for the towns of the Connecticut area (Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield). First constitution written in America.

23

Squanto

A Wampanoag man who assisted the Pilgrims after their first winter in what is now Massachusetts. He was integral to their very survival

24

Pequot War

The Pequot War was an armed conflict between the Pequot tribe and an alliance of the English colonists of the Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, and Saybrook colonies and their Native American allies which occurred between 1634 and 1638. The Pequot lost the war. Began 38 years of peace between colonists and natives until King Philip's War.

25

Praying Towns

Praying towns were developed by the Puritans of New England from 1646 to 1675 in an effort to convert the local Native American tribes to Christianity. The Natives who moved into these towns were known as Praying Indians.

26

Metacom

Metacomet, also known as Metacom and by his adopted English name King Philip, was a Wampanoag and the second son of the Wampanoag chief Massasoit. Became the the chief of the tribe and led the natives against the English in King Philip’s War.

27

King Philip's War

1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wampanoags, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.

28

New England Confederation

1643 - Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies (Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven), and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies.

29

Charles II

King of England after the “Restoration” that ended rule by Oliver Cromwell. The period of Cromwell’s rule had seen colony founding halt. Charles II brought it back, and increased government involvement.

30

Dominion of New England

1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros. This was brought on by the Glorious Revolution in England.

31

Navigation Laws

Laws put in place by the English crown that put restrictions on who colonies were allowed to trade with. In general, colonies could only ship raw goods to England on English boats. They were meant as a way to keep the wealth created by colonies from being spent elsewhere in the world.

32

Edmund Andros

Royal governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 to 1692. Was driven back to Europe when the colonists revolted against his strict rule.

33

Glorious Revolution

1668. King James II’s policies, such as converting to catholicism, conducting a series of repressive trials known as the "Bloody Assizes," and maintaining a standing army, so outraged the people of England that Parliament asked him to resign and invited King William of the Netherlands (who became known as William II in England), to take over the throne. King James II left peacefully (after his troops deserted him) and King William II and his wife Queen Mary II took the throne without any war or bloodshed, hence the revolution was termed "glorious."

34

William and Mary

Monarchs who took power in the Glorious Revolution. They signed the English Bill of Rights, and put to rest any thoughts of England becoming Catholic again.

35

Salutary Neglect

Prime Minister Robert Walpole’s policy in dealing with the American colonies. He was primarily concerned with British affairs and believed that unrestricted trade in the colonies would be more profitable for England than would taxation of the colonies.

36

Dutch East India Company

A trading company founded by the Dutch and given a monopoly on the spice trade from the East Indies. It was the first multinational company, and was enormously powerful. It originally founded the colony of New Netherlands, only to later lose it to the English after years of neglect.

37

Henry Hudson

Sir Henry Hudson was an English sea explorer and navigator in the early 17th century. Hudson made two attempts on behalf of English merchants to find a prospective Northwest Passage to Cathay via a route above the Arctic Circle.

38

New Amsterdam

Original name of New York City. It was originally founded by the Dutch.

39

Patroonships

A landholder with manorial rights to large tracts of land in the 17th century Dutch colony of New Netherlands in North America.

40

Wall Street

Name given to the street that ran along the outer wall of New Amsterdam (later named New York City)

41

New Sweden

New Sweden was a Swedish colony along the lower reaches of the Delaware River in North America from 1638 to 1655 in the present-day American Mid-Atlantic states of Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.

42

Peter Stuyvesant

Peter Stuyvesant served as the last Dutch Director-General of the colony of New Netherland from 1647 until it was ceded provisionally to the English in 1664, after which it was renamed New York.

43

Quakers

A Christian denomination known for their pacifism and work to ensure equality for all. They founded the colony of Pennsylvania, which was known for toleration and good relations with the natives and the first hotbed of abolitionism.

44

The Middle Colonies

The colonies of Delaware, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. They are known for being a blend of North and South, and having a very culturally diverse population.

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