Chapter 25 - America Moves to the Cities, 1865-1900 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 25 - America Moves to the Cities, 1865-1900 Deck (62)
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Louis Sullivan

Chicago architect who contributed to the development of the skyscraper with his principle “form follows function”


Walking Cities

An early form of the city that had little or no public transportation. Most people walked to work, and houses were clustered around factories or apartment buildings. Neighborhoods were jumbled together and mansions were sometimes just down the block from tenements.


Department Stores

attracted urban middle class-shoppers and provided working-class jobs (many for women); consumerism and showed class division; examples are Macy's and Marshall Field's



Urban apartment buildings that served as housing for poor factory workers. Often poorly constructed and overcrowded


Birds of Passage

those who worked in America for a number of years and after earning a decent amount of money, they would travel back to their home country



labor boss; met immigrants and secured jobs wherever there was a demand for industrial labor; could speak both Italian and English; often gave homes to newcomers


Political Bosses

Influential politicians who demanded payoffs from business and helped the poor to try to win votes.


Social Gospel

Movement led by Washington Gladden - taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization.


Jane Addams

established Hull House, the most prominent American settlement house. Addams condemned war as well as poverty. Hull House offered instruction in English, counseling to help immigrants deal with American big-city life, childcare services for working mothers, and cultural activities for neighborhood residents.


Hull House

the most prominent American settlement house; it offered instruction in English, counseling to help immigrants deal with American big-city life, childcare services for working mothers, and cultural activities for neighborhood residents.


Settlement Houses

Lillian Wald established Henry Street Settlement in New York in 1893. The settlement houses became centers of women's activism and of social reform., neighborhood centers in poor areas that offered education, recreation, and social activities


Florence Kelley

was a lifelong fighter for the welfare of women, children, blacks, and consumers. The pioneering work of Addams, Wald, and Kelley helped to create the trail that many women later followed into careers in the new profession of social work. The urban frontier opened new possibilities for women. The vast majority of working women were single due to the fact that society considered employment for wives and mothers taboo



worried that the original Anglo-Saxon population would soon be outnumbered and outvoted; considered eastern and southern European immigrants inferior to themselves. They blamed the immigrants for the dreadful conditions of urban government, and unionists attacked the immigrants for their willingness to work for small wages.



the white people who lived in america


American Protective Association

Created in 1887, it urged to vote against Roman Catholic candidates for office.


Statue of Liberty

A gift from the people of France displayed in the New York Harbor


Salvation Army

"soldiers without swords" invaded america from England in 1879 and established a beachhead on the street corners. Appealing to he down and outers; did much practical good especially with free soup



established before the civil war but grew after. Combined physical and other kinds of education with religious instruction, and appeared in virtually every major american city by the end of the 19th century


Charles Darwin

Scientist that studied and introduced widely the idea of evolution to society.


Origin of the Species

1859 Published by Charles Darwin stated that humans had slowly evolved from lower forms of life. The theory of evolution cast serious doubt on the idea of religion



stood firmly in their beliefs of God and religion, despite the introduction of Darwin's research, and in fact condemned those who believed in it



flatly refused to accept the Bible in its entirety due to Darwin's research


Normal Schools

teacher-training schools and experienced great expansion after civil war.



teaching to younger children; gained strong support



an adult education movement in the United States, highly popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.


Booker T. Washington

The leading champion of black education; ex-slave; He taught in 1881 at the black normal and industrial school at Tuskegee, Alabama. His self-help approach to solving the nation's racial problems was labeled "accommodationist" because it stopped short of directly challenging white supremacy; avoided the issue of social equality.


Tuskegee Institute

George Washington Carver taught and researched here; trained young blacks in agriculture and the trades



Term given to Booker T. Washington's method of solving race issues--he helped blacks by promoting their economic value but not challenging white supremacy


George Washington Carver

A black chemist and director of agriculture at the Tuskegee Institute, where he invented many new uses for peanuts. He believed that education was the key to improving the social status of blacks.


W.E.B. Dubois

attacked Booker T. Washington because Washington condemned the black race to manual labor and perpetual inferiority; fought for African American rights. Helped to found Niagra Movement in 1905 to fight for and establish equal rights. This movement later led to the establishment of the NAACP

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