Chapter 1 - New World Beginnings, 33,000 b.c.e. - 1769 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - New World Beginnings, 33,000 b.c.e. - 1769 Deck (46)
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1

Old World

Refers to Asia, Africa, and Europe before European contact with the Americas

2

New World

Refers to the Americas and the Western Hemisphere due to the the lack of contact between Eurasia and the Americas.

3

Appalachian Mountains

Mountain range in the Eastern US that provided an effective barrier to European settlers’ expansion until after the French and Indian War.

4

Tidewater Region

Tidewater is a geographic area of southeast Virginia, Maryland, and northeastern North Carolina, part of the Atlantic coastal plain. The area is generally flat and low and composed of tidal marsh and large expanses of swamp

5

Rocky Mountains

Mountain range that runs along the Western edge of the Great Plains. They are a much younger range than the Appalachians.

6

Great Basin

Area between the Rocky Mtns on the East, and Sierra Nevada Mountains on the West. The Great Basin does not drain anywhere but into itself, so is home to many large inland lakes.

7

Great Lakes

Lakes Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior. All were formed and filled by the receding glaciers at the end of the last ice age.

8

Missouri-Mississippi-Ohio River System

The drainage system for the enormous basin between the Appalachians and the Rocky Mtns.

9

Land Bridge

Appeared when much of the ocean water was locked into the ice caps and glaciers during the last Ice Age. Allowed people from Asia to walk across it, probably following migrating herds of animals, and eventually populate all the of the New World. The land bridge was closed as the glaciers melted and water levels rose.

10

Maize

Large grain plant domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mexico in prehistoric times about 10,000 years ago. This as the staple food source for most early Americans.

11

Aztecs

One of the Great 3 American civilizations, (along with the Incas and the Mayans) who dominated Central Mexico from the 1300s until they were destroyed by Hernan Cortez.

12

Incas

Largest of the Great 3 American civilizations, (along with the Aztecs and the Mayans). They dominated the area of modern day Peru and the Andes Mountains from the 1100s until they were destroyed by Francisco Pizarro.

13

Pueblo

Native American tribe from the American Southwest.

14

Mound Builder

Early native culture that was active before the arrival of Columbus in the New World. Lived from modern day Illinois to Ohio.

15

Three-sister Farming

The main agricultural crops of the North American native groups: squash, maize (corn), and beans.

16

Cherokee

Native American tribe living in the Georgia and the Carolinas. Were considered one of the “Five Civilized Tribes” due to their adoption of agriculture.

17

Iroquois

Powerful Northeastern Native American tribe. Led the Iroquois Confederacy during the colonial era.

18

Caravel

a small, highly maneuverable sailing ship developed in the 15th century by the Portuguese to explore along the West African coast and into the Atlantic Ocean.

19

Bartolomeu Dias

Portuguese explorer. He sailed around the southernmost tip of Africa in 1488, reaching the Indian Ocean from the Atlantic, the first European known to have done so.

20

Vasco da Gama

He was the first European to reach India by sea, linking Europe and Asia for the first time by an ocean route.

21

Ferdinand and Isabella

Spanish monarchs that paid for the expeditions of Christopher Columbus

22

Christopher Columbus

Explorer credited with “discovering” the New World in 1492.

23

Corn

Staple food of the New World. Crossed the Atlantic in the Columbian Exchange.

24

Potatoes

Staple food of the New World. Crossed the Atlantic in the Columbian Exchange.

25

Sugar

Old World food that was transplanted to the New World. Became an enormous moneymaker in the New World climate, and dominated the African Slave Trade.

26

Horses

Introduced to the New World by Europeans conquistadors.

27

Smallpox

Old World disease that wreaked havoc on the New World. Estimates range from 50-90% of the total population of the Americas died in a the first century after the arrival of the Europeans.

28

Treaty of Tordesillas

Agreement between Spain and Portugal aimed at settling conflicts over lands newly discovered or explored by Christopher Columbus and other late 15th-century voyagers. All lands to the east of the Treaty line would be controlled by Spain. Left basically Brazil as the only part that Portugal controlled.

29

Vasco Nunez Balboa

Spanish explorer, governor, and conquistador. He is best known for having crossed the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific Ocean in 1513

30

Ferdinand Magellan

First explorer to circumnavigate the globe….but he actually died in the Philippines. His ship and a few of his crew did make it all the way though.

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