Chapter 30 - The War to End All Wars, 1914-1918 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 30 - The War to End All Wars, 1914-1918 Deck (48)
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1

"Peace without Victory"

This was said by Woodrow Wilson in 1917. He hoped that America could find a non-violent solution to the growing world war and achieve a peaceful (International) state without the need for combat. This was a very unrealistic claim at the time.

2

Unlimited Submarine Warfare

The act of taking down any naval vessel from any nation from underwater U-boats. The victims receive no warning and any and all ocean vessels are taken down if they are spotted by the submarines.

3

Arthur Zimmermann

A German secretary/representative. He sent a letter to Mexico, proposing an alliance and encouraged them to attack to the United States. His letter was eventually discovered and published by the United States. This sparked the desire for war in the hearts of many Americans. Zimmermann’s letter played a large role in America’s joining of the war.

4

Jeannette Rankin

A pacifist and devout republican, Rankin became the first woman to ever hold political office in the United States. She held positions in Congress and the House of Representatives. Rankin was the only Congress member to vote against WWI (She would later vote against WWII and resist Vietnam War efforts).

5

Fourteen Points

This was a plan for peace, broken down into 14 points, made by Woodrow Wilson. It expressed his desires and plans for peace (and the League of Nations). It was less cruel towards the Germans and encouraged allied morale. Wilson gave points that he claimed would take down Germany and would prevent future warfare like this

6

Committee on Public Information

A government organization that formed in 1917. Their goal is to encourage Americans support of the war by distributing propaganda and “four-Minutemen” to the public.

7

George Creel

was the head of the committee on public information and was given the task of selling the American public on the idea of the war and gaining their support.

8

Four-minute Men

volunteers appointed by Woodrow Wilson. They gave for minute, pro war speeches on issues given to them by the committee on public information. This was to rally American support of the war.

9

The Hun

popular American propaganda that depicted the Kaiser as a bloody helmeted beast, and often called “the Hun”.

10

Over There

American patriotic war song.

11

Liberty Cabbage

once the United States entered the war, foods with German names were renamed. One of the most popular being sauerkraut, which was renamed “liberty cabbage”.

12

Espionage Act

in 1917 this act was passed to prohibit ask of disloyalty to America.

13

Sedition Act

going hand-in-hand with the espionage act, the sedition act was passed in 1918. It restricted the rights and liberties of those found guilty of violating the espionage act.

14

Eugene V. Debs

A socialist who was convicted of being a traitor under the espionage act in 1918. He was given 10 years in prison for this.

15

William D. Haywood

Head of the group “industrial workers of the world”. He and 99 of his colleagues were convicted under the espionage act.

16

Bernard Baruch

appointed by President Wilson in March 1918 to lead to the war industries Board, set the precedent for the federal government to take a central economic planning and moments of crisis.

17

War Industries Board

The federal agency run by Bernard Baruch. It set up production quotas, coordinated industrial production, distributed materials, pushed for a company efficiency, and encouraged waste elimination. American production increased by 20% because of the war industries Board.

18

"Work or Fight"

A rule by the war department to draft unemployed males

19

National War Labor Board

Led by ex president Taft, this organization devoted itself to settling labor disputes that could hinder the war effort. At sought higher wages for employees and eight hour workdays. However it failed to address the demand for the right to assemble labor unions by workers.

20

Wobblies

term referring to IWW members. The IWW did not support the war effort and aimed to sabotage it.

21

NAWSA

National American women's suffrage Association. They justified their support of Woodrow Wilson's war by arguing that women played an essential role in achieving peace.

22

19th Amendment

passed in 1919 and ratified in 1920, this amendment gave women the right to vote.

23

Women’s Bureau

part of the department of labor that was established after the war to protect women in the workplace.

24

Food Administration

The food administration was responsible for administering food to the united states army and its allies overseas during the war.

25

Herbert Hoover

leader of the food administration and was considered a hero for leading Massachusetts drive to feed the starving people in Belgium. He relied on volunteers and propaganda. His work was accepted by many other agencies. Future president of United States.

26

Meatless Tuesdays

A request by President Hoover for Americans to give up meat on Tuesdays to have extra food to support the war. This proved to be very successful in the long run.

27

Eighteenth Amendment

prohibited at the manufacturing, transport, and sale of alcohol with in the United States of America.

28

Heatless Mondays

similar to meatless Tuesdays, the fuel administration asked Americans to not heat their homes on Mondays to conserve fuel to support the war effort.

29

Liberty Bonds

Bonds increased interest over time. The government we use money from the purchase to continue supporting the war.

30

Marshal Foch

French commander that led allied forces in spring of 1918.

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