Chapter 33 - The great Depression and the New Deal, 1933-1939 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 33 - The great Depression and the New Deal, 1933-1939 Deck (50)
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1

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

2

Eleanor Roosevelt

-American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

3

New Deal

The New Deal was a series of programs, including, most notably, Social Security, that were enacted in the United States between 1933 and 1938. Response made by FDR to The Great Depression

4

Banking Holiday

From March 6 to March 10, banking transactions were suspended across the nation except for making change. This followed the stock market crash that spurred on bank runs.

5

Hundred Days

The House and the Senate met for 100 days between March-June 1933. FDR's new deal which changed the way American government operates., March 9th to June 16th 1933. Congress passed more then 15 pieces of legislation. Laws and others that followed that expanded the federal governemnts role in the nations economy

6

Three R's

Created by FDR; a plan to bring about the recovery of the United States from the effects of the Great Depression:
Relief-relieve the suffering of those hit by the depression,
Recovery- help the economy recover, and
Reform-reforms areas that caused the depression

7

Fireside Chats

The informal radio conversations Roosevelt had with the people to keep spirits up. It was a means of communicating with the people on how he would take on the depression.

8

Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act

Act that provided for the FDIC (1933) and separated consumer banks (where we keep our money) and investment banks (which buy and sell stocks to make profits)

9

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

Created by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, insured individual deposits up to $5000, thereby decreasing the amount of bank failures and restored faith in the banks. Created by Glass-Steagall Reform Act. It insures up to $100,000 for bank deposits, thus helping put faith back into the banks.

10

Managed Currency

Any currency that can have its exchange rate affected by the intervention of a central bank.

11

Pump Priming

Pump priming is the action taken to stimulate an economy, usually during a recessionary period, through government spending, and interest rate and tax reductions.

12

CCC

The Civillian Conservation Corporation Provided employment in fresh air government camps for about 3 million workers, which helped in reforestation, firefighting, flood control, and swamp drainage. Income were mandatorily sent back to their parents. Critiics of this policy called it "militarizing" nation's youth

13

FERA

Federal Emergency Relief Administration (1933)- Relief, Recovery- Combined cash relief to needy families with work relief; superseded in early 1935 by the extensive work relief projects of the WPA and unemployment insurance established by Social Security.

14

Harry Hopkins

He was one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal

15

AAA

Agricultural Adjustment Act reduced agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies not to plant on part of their land and to kill off excess livestock.

16

HOLC

The Home Owners' Loan Corporation was a government-sponsored corporation created as part of the New Deal. The corporation was established in 1933 by the Home Owners' Loan Corporation Act under the leadership of President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

17

CWA

Civil Works Administration. 1st New Deal agency created by FDR to reduce unemployment during the cold winter months of 1933; it spent $1 billion on short-term projects for unemployed manual laborers but was abolished in the spring of '34

18

Father Charles Coughlin

A Catholic priest from Michigan who was critical of FDR on his radio show.

19

Huey Long

A presidential candidate in the 1936 election known for his Share the Wealth program. He and other demagogues pushed FDR to move the New Deal to help people directly

20

Dr. Francis E. Townsend

-A doctor and critic of FDR's who proposed that everyone 60 years of age or older should get $200 a month as long as they spent it within 30 days.

21

WPA

May 6, 1935- Began under Hoover and continued under Roosevelt but was headed by Harry L. Hopkins. Provided jobs and income to the unemployed but couldn't work more than 30 hours a week. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.

22

Frances Perkins

Was the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the US Cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition. She and Interior Secretary Harold Ickes were the only original members of Roosevelt's cabinet who remained in offices for his entire Presidency

23

Mary McLeod Bethune

Mary McLeod Bethune was a leader in the struggle for women's and black equality. She founded a school for black students that eventually became Bethune-Cookman University. She also served as an advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt

24

Margaret Mead

Advanced bold new ideas about sexuality, gender roles, and intergenerational relationships, helped popularize cultural anthropology.

25

Pearl Buck

American novelist, wrote The Good Earth, earning her the Nobel Prize for literature.

26

NRA

Government agency that was part of the New Deal and dealt with the industrial sector of the economy. It allowed industries to create fair competition which were intended to reduce destructive competition and to help workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours.

27

Sick Chicken Decision

This decision stated that Congress could not delegate legislative powers to the executive branch (congress may not pass a law allowing the president to write and pass laws, that's their job and to do so would disrupt the balance of powers). Specifically, it stated that interstate commerce couldn't be applied to local commerce like the fowl business in Brooklyn owned by the Schecter brothers.

28

PWA

(FDR) , 1935 Created for both industrial recovery and for unemployment relief. Headed by the Secretary of Interior Harold L. Ickes, it aimed at long-range recovery and spent $4 billion on thousands of projects that included public buildings, highways, and parkways.

29

Harold Ickes

The Sec of Interior who is the head of the Public Works Administrations for industrial recovery and unemployment relief. Long range recovery through civil works, like the Grand Coulee Dam of the Columbia River.

30

Dust Bowl

Parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas that were hit hard by dry topsoil and high winds that created blinding dust storms; this area of the Great Plains became called that because winds blew away crops and farms, and blew dust from Oklahoma to Albany, New York.

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