Chapter 12 - The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism, 1812-1824 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12 - The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism, 1812-1824 Deck (38)
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1

Oliver Hazard Perry

Oliver Perry led a 1813 naval victory against the British on Lake Erie.

2

Andrew Jackson

Became famous for leading the Americans to victory over the British in New Orleans. Jackson was hopelessly outmanned and outgunned, but his crew of pirates and frontiersmen beat the British, although it was technically 2 weeks after the Treaty of Ghent had been signed

3

Battle of New Orleans

January, 1815 - A large British invasion force was repelled by Andrew Jackson’s troops at New Orleans. Jackson had been given the details of the British army’s battle plans by the French pirate, Jean Laffite. About 2500 British soldiers were killed or captured, while in the American army only 8 men were killed. Neither side knew that the Treaty of Ghent had ended the War of 1812 two weeks before the battle. This victory inspired American nationalism.

4

Treaty of Ghent

December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.

5

John Quincy Adams

One of American delegation which negotiated the Treaty of Ghent.

6

Henry Clay

One of American delegation which negotiated the Treaty of Ghent.

7

Blue Light Federalists

Blue-light Federalist was a derogatory term used by those who believed certain Federalists to have made friendly (“blue-light”) signals to British ships in the War of 1812 to warn the British of American blockade runners.

8

Hartford Convention

December 1814 - A convention of New England merchants who opposed the Embargo and other trade restriction, and the War of 1812. They proposed some Amendments to the Constitution and advocated the right of states to nullify federal laws. They also discussed the idea of seceding from the U.S. if their desires were ignored. The Hartford Convention turned public sentiment against the Federalists and led to the demise of the party.

9

Washington Irving

Author, diplomat. Wrote The Sketch Book, which included "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow." He was the first American to be recognized in England (and elsewhere) as a writer.

10

James Fenimore Cooper

American novelist. The Spy (1821) was about the American Revolution. The Pioneers (1823) tells of an old scout returning to his boyhood home and is one of the Leatherstocking Tales, a series of novels about the American frontier, for which Cooper was famous. Cooper later stayed in Europe for seven years, and when he returned he was disgusted by American society because it didn't live up to his books. Cooper emphasized the independence of individuals and importance of a stable social order.

11

Stephen Decatur

Naval hero from the War of 1812 and defeated the Pirates of the Barbary Coast.

12

Tariff of 1816

First tariff in our history that was meant for protection of our industries instead of to make money. Charged 20-25% tax on imports, mostly to keep the British from flooding our markets.

13

Henry Clay

Congressman, made his name as a war-hawk. Used his new found influence to push his idea of an American market known as the American System.

14

The American System

Proposed after the War of 1812, it included using federal money for internal improvements (roads, bridges, industrial improvements, etc.), enacting a protective tariff to foster the growth of American industries, and strengthening the national bank.

15

Erie Canal

1825 - The Erie canal was opened as a toll waterway connecting New York to the Great Lakes. The canal was approved in 1817 with the support of New York’s Governor, Dewitt Clinton. Along with the Cumberland Road, it helped connect the North and the West.

16

James Monroe

5th president of the US. Served from 1817-1825. Presided over the “Era of Good Feelings.”

17

Virginia Dynasty

The Virginia dynasty is a term sometimes used to describe the fact that four of the first five Presidents of the United States were from Virginia

18

Era of Good Feelings

A name for President Monroe’s two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.

19

Wildcat Banks

Wildcat bank, unsound bank chartered under state law during the period of uncontrolled state banking (1816–63) in the United States.

20

Panic of 1819

A natural post-war depression caused by overproduction and the reduced demand for goods after the war. However, it was generally blamed on the National Bank

21

Tallmadge Amendment

When Missouri applied for statehood, there was a dispute over whether it would be admitted as a slave state or a free state. The Tallmadge Amendment was a bill which would have admitted Missouri with its existing slave population, but would forbid the introduction of additional slaves and free all slave children at age 25.

22

Peculiar Institution

Euphemism for slavery. Mostly used in the south.

23

Missouri Compromise

Admitted Missouri as a slave state and at the same time admitted Maine as a free state. Declared that all territory north of the 36°30" latitude would become free states, and all territory south of that latitude would become slave states.

24

Old Northwest

Territory also known as the Northwest Territory, but was now split into full states, and territories that were on the way to becoming states under the Northwest Ordinance.

25

John Marshall

Chief Justice, included in the court case McCulloch v. Maryland. He declared he Bank constitutional by invoking the Hamiltonian doctrine of implied powers. Also strengthened federal authority and slapped at state infringements when he denied Maryland the right to tax the bank.

26

McCulloch v. Maryland

1819 - This decision upheld the power of Congress to charter a bank as a government agency, and denied the state the power to tax that agency.

27

Loose Construction

Way to interpret the Constitution as a document whose interpretation should change as society changes.

28

Cohens v. Virginia

1821 - This case upheld the Supreme Court's jurisdiction to review a state court's decision where the case involved breaking federal laws.

29

Gibbons v. Ogden

1824 - This case ruled that only the federal government has authority over interstate commerce.

30

Fletcher v. Peck

1810 - A state had tried to revoke a land grant on the grounds that it had been obtained by corruption. The Court ruled that a state cannot arbitrarily interfere with a person’s property rights. Since the land grant was a legal contract, it could not be repealed, even if corruption was involved.

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