Chapter 6 - The Duel for North America, 1608-1763 Flashcards Preview

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French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.


Samuel de Champlain

French explorer who travelled the St. Lawrence River, and founded the colony of New France in the interior of North America.


New France

French colony in the interior of North America. Founded by the Samuel de Champlain.



The primary resource of New France. It was hunted to near extinction by the natives, and then sold to the French at outposts throughout the modern day Midwest.


Couriers du Bois

French trappers who lived in the interior of the country. Most were single males who lived a fast and hard life, usually dying a young age.


Robert de La Salle

He explored the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada, the Mississippi River, and the Gulf of Mexico.


Treaty of Utrecht

Ended Queen Anne’s War (Britain vs. France). Undermined France’s power in North America by giving Britain the Hudson Bay, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia.


James Oglethorpe

Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist’s dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.



Island fortress in the mouth of the St. Lawrence River, was won in King George’s War with the help of colonists, but was given back to the French at the end of the war. Irritated many colonial fighters that they had fought in vain.


Fort Duquesne

Fort Duquesne became one of the principal French outposts in the northern Ohio Valley, and, in 1754 the French troops in Fort Duquesne destroyed nearby British Fort Necessity, after Washington and the colonial army surrendered it to them.


George Washington

He had led troops (rather unsuccessfully) during the French and Indian War, and had surrendered Fort Necessity to the French. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and was much more successful in this second command.


Fort Necessity

The battle at Fort Necessity in the summer of 1754 was the opening action of the French and Indian War. The fort was built by George Washington, and was surrounded the following day by a larger force of French troops, and he was forced to give them control of the fort.


French and Indian War

Part of the Seven Years’ War in Europe. Britain and France fought for control of the Ohio Valley and Canada. The Algonquins, who feared British expansion into the Ohio Valley, allied with the French. The Mohawks also fought for the French while the rest of the Iroquois Nation allied with the British. The colonies fought under British commanders. Britain eventually won, and gained control of all of the remaining French possessions in Canada, as well as India. Spain, which had allied with France, ceded Florida to Britain, but received Louisana in return.



French speaking citizens of Nova Scotia, which had recently been taken by the British. At the start of the French and Indian War, 4000 of these people were forcibly uprooted and scattered around continent. Many ended up in Louisiana, and are now referred to as “cajun.”


Benjamin Franklin

Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.


Albany Plan of Union

During the French and Indian War, Franklin wrote this proposal for a unified colonial government, which would operate under the authority of the British government.


"Join or Die"

Famous cartoon made by Benjamin Franklin to advertise the need for the Albany Congress. It was meant to illustrate the need for colonial unity and home-rule.


Edward Braddock

British commander in the French and Indian War. He was killed and his army defeated in a battle at the intersection of the Ohio, Allegheny, and Monongahela Rivers, known as the Battle of Fallen Timbers.


William Pitt

British secretary of state during the French and Indian War. He brought the British/colonial army under tight British control and started drafting colonists, which led to riots.


James Wolfe

Leader of the British/colonial forces that won that Battle of Quebec. He was killed in the fighting.


Battle of Quebec

1759 - Major battle of the French and Indian War, and would lead to the loss of all colonial holdings in Canada permanently. The British won under the leadership of James Wolfe.


Louis XIV

French king, known as “the Sun King,” during the early 1700s. He directed the settling of New France in the hope that it would a “civilized colony” in the New World.


The Great Displacement

Term for the forcible relocation of French settlers in land that had been conquered by the British.


Treaty of Paris

Treaty between Britain, France, and Spain, which ended the Seven Years War (and the French and Indian War). France lost Canada, the land east of the Mississippi, some Caribbean islands and India to Britain. France also gave New Orleans and the land west of the Mississippi to Spain, to compensate it for ceding Florida to the British.


Pontiac’s Rebellion

1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottawa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.


Daniel Boone

One of the first English colonists to venture into the newly vacated land of “New France” after the French and Indian War. He ended up settling in the Tennessee/Kentucky area, and blazed the Wilderness Trail that allowed thousands of new settlers per year to travel past the Appalachians.


Proclamation of 1763

A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.


Queen Anne’s War, 1702-1713

The second of the four wars known generally as the French and Indian Wars, it arose out of issues left unresolved by King William’s War (1689-1697) and was part of a larger European conflict known as the War of the Spanish Succession. Britain, allied with the Netherlands, defeated France and Spain to gain territory in Canada, even though the British had suffered defeats in most of their military operations in North America.


War of Jenkin’s Ear, 1739-1743

Land squabble between Britain and Spain over Georgia and trading rights. Battles took place in the Caribbean and on the Florida/Georgia border. The name comes from a British captain named Jenkin, whose ear was cut off by the Spanish.


King George’s War, 1744-1748

Land squabble between France and Britain. France tried to retake Nova Scotia (which it had lost to Britain in Queen Anne’s War). The war ended with a treaty restoring the status quo, so that Britain kept Nova Scotia).

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