Chapter 15 & 16 - ANS & Sensory, Motor & Integrative Systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 & 16 - ANS & Sensory, Motor & Integrative Systems Deck (59)
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31

Ruffini Corpuscles

type II cutaneous mechanoreceptors

elongated, encapsulated receptors 

deep in dermis, ligaments & tendons

hands & soles

32

Pacinian or Lamellated Corpuscles 

 

Large oval structure composed of a multilayered CT capsule that encloses a dendrite (encapsulated)

fast adapting - pressure

joints, tendons, muscles, peiosteum, mammary glands, external genitals, pancreas & urinary bladder

33

 
Thermal Sensations

thermoreceptors

cold - stratum basale: medium myelinated A fibers

warm - dermis: small unmyelinated C

34

Pain Sensations 

protective

nociceptors 

free nerve endings 

fast: acute, sharp/pricking

slow: chronic, aching

35

Refered pain

Pain is felt in or just deep to the skin that overlies the stimulated organ or in a surface area far from the stimulated organ

36

Proprioceptive Sensations 

 

proprioceptors

slow adaptation

weight discrimation

(3) types: muscle spindles, tendon organs & joint kinesthetic receptors 

37

Proprioceptors: muscle spindles

parellel to & among skeletal muscle fibers

measure muscle length

consist of intrafusal (inside) muscle fibers - specialized with sensory nerve endings & gamma motor neurons

extrafusal (outside) muscle fibers - surround muscle fiber supplied by alpha motor neurons

38

Tendon Organs

at junction of tendon & muscle

protect tendons from damage due to xs tension

thin capsule of CT that encloses few tendon fascicles 

39

Joint Kinesthetic Receptors

Found within or around articular capsules of synovial joints. 
Free nerve endings & Ruffini corpuscles respond to pressure

pacinian corpuscles respond to accel/deceleration of joints during movement

40

Somatic Sensory Pathways 

  1. first order neurons 
  2. second order neuron 
  3. third order neuron

  1.  (somatic receptor → brain stem/spinal cord
  2. brain stem/spinal cord → thalamus
  3. thalamus → primary somatosensory area

41

Major Somatic sensory pathways 

o The posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway. 
o The anterolateral (spinothalamic) pathway. 
o The trigeminothalamic pathway. 
o The anterior and posterior spinocerebellar pathway. 

 

42

The Posterior Column-Medial Lemniscus Pathway 

 

impulses for touch, pressure, vibration, conscius proprioception from limbs, trunk, neck, & posterior head to cerebral cortex

43

The Anterolateral (spinothalamic) pathway 

 

pain, cold , warmth, itch, & tickle from the limbs, trunk, neck, and posterior head to cerebral cortex.

44

Trigeminothalamic Pathway 

 

most somatic sensations 

from face, nasal/oral cavity & teeth to cerebral cortex 

45

Somatic Motor Pathways 

 

upper motor neurons → lower motor neurons → 
skeletal muscles

46

Neural circuits involving basal ganglia and cerebellum regulate activity of  
_______________ motor neurons.

upper

47

Organization of the Upper Motor Neuron Pathways 

direct motor pathway 

originates in cerebral cortex 

48

Direct Motor pathways (2) 

corticospinal - limbs & trunk

corticobulbar - skeletal muscles in head

49

 Indirect motor pathway-

originates in brain stem 

50

 Indirect or Extrapyramidal Pathways (4) 

Rubrospinal tract 
- Tectospinal tract 
- Vestibulospinal tract 
- Reticulospinal tract 

 

 

51

Modulation of Movement from the Cerebellum

coordinates and smoothes contractions of skeletal
muscles during skilled movements & helps maintain posture and balance

 

52

Integrative Functions of the Cerebrum 

 

wakefulness, sleep, learning, memory 

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o The role of Reticular Activating System (RAS) in Awakening 

 

neuronal axons from reticular formation through thalamus to cerebral cortex

increased activity = awakening 

 

54

Sleep

(2) components

state of altered consciousness

1) NREM

2) REM

55

4 stages of sleep

  1. relaxed
  2. light sleep
  3. moderately deep sleep
  4. deepest sleep (sleepwalking)

56

Learning

ability to acquire new info/skills through instruction/experience

57

Memory

 process by which information acquired through learning is stored and retrieved. 

 

58

Memory types (3) 

immediate

short-term 

long-term

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