Chapter 18 - Altered Mental Status, Stroke, and Headache Flashcards Preview

EMT - Basic - Prehostpital Emergency Care 10th Edition > Chapter 18 - Altered Mental Status, Stroke, and Headache > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 18 - Altered Mental Status, Stroke, and Headache Deck (22):
1

a network of specialized nerve cells within the brainstem that controls states of arousal and consciousness including wakefulness, attentiveness, and sleep

reticular activating system (RAS)

2

an unconscious state in which the Pt does not respond to painful stimuli is referred to as a ______.

coma

3

______ causes of AMS
brain tumor
hemorrhage in the cranium but outside of the brain
hemorrhage in the brain tissue
direct brain tissue damage from trauma to the brain
degenerative disease of the brain
brain abscess or infection

structural causes of AMS

4

______ causes of AMS
severe hypoxia or anoxia (reduced or no 02)
abnormal BGL
liver failure
kidney failure
poisoning

toxic-metabolic

5

S/S
obvious signs of trauma: DCAP-BTLS
abnormal resp pattern
increased or decreased HR
unequal pupils
high or low BP
discoloration around eyes (late sign)
discoloration behind ears (late sign)
pale, cool, clammy
decorticate or decerebrate

AMS - trauma

6

S/S
abnormal resp pattern
dry or moist skin
cool or hot skin
pinpoint, midsize, dilated, or unequal pupils
stiff neck
lacerations to the tongue - seizure bite
high systolic BP and low HR
loss of bladder/bowel
abnormally high or low BGL

AMS - nontraumatic or medical condition

7

any deficiency in the nervous systems functioning, typically exhibited as a motor, sensory, or cognitive deficit

neurological deficit

8

S/S
slurred speech
absent speech
paralysis
weakness
numbness

neurological deficit

9

a sudden disruption in blood flow to the brain that results in brain cell damage. blood flow might be interrupted by a ruptured artery or blocked by a clot or other foreign matter in an artery that supplies the brain

stroke or cerebrovascular accident or CVA
"brain attack"

10

a stroke caused by a cot obstructing a blood vessel in the brain, resulting in an inadequate amount of blood being delivered to a portion of the brain distal to the blocked vessel

ischemic stroke

11

a stroke caused by rupture of a blood vessel in the brain that allows blood to leak and collect in or around the brain tissue

hemorrhagic stroke

12

a clot that develops at the site of occlusion

thrombus

13

the process of clot formation is called

thrombosis

14

a type of ischemic stroke caused by a stationary clot that forms in and blocks a cerebral artery

thrombotic stroke

15

a type of ischemic stroke caused by plaque or other material that lodges in and blocks a cerebral artery

embolic stroke

16

bleeding on the surface of the brain

subarachnoid

17

bleeding within the brain

intracerebral

18

brief, intermittent episode with stroke-like symptoms that typically disappear within minutes, but usually last no longer than 1 hr., caused by an oxygen deficit in the brain tissue and are often a precursor to a stroke

transient ischemic attack

19

S/S scale:
facial droop by having Pt show teeth
arm drift (closed eyes supine arms out)
abnormal speech (you cant teach an old dog new tricks)

cincinnati prehospital stroke scale CPSS

20

S/S scale:
age>45
history of seizures or epilepsy
duration of symptoms
wheelchair or bedridden pt
BGL

LA prehospital stroke scale LAPSS

21

stroke pt physical assessment considerations
1
2
3

look up, smile, and show teeth
compare grip strength of upper extremities
assess arm strength for drift weekness

22

S/S
possible seizures
loss of bowel or bladder
arm drift
paralysis or weakness to one or both sides of body
drooping eyelid and mouth on one side of face
severe headache
decreased consciousness
change in personality
pupils unequal in size
loss of vision, dimness, or double vision
difficulty speaking or slurred speech
inability to speak
nausea or vomiting
sudden weakness or paralysis of face, arm, or leg

stroke

Decks in EMT - Basic - Prehostpital Emergency Care 10th Edition Class (44):