Flashcards in Chapter 16 - Respiratory Emergencies Deck (54)
the resp system can be divided into three portions :
the upper/lower with the vocal cords being the transition between the two
findings consistent with a Pt who is breathing adequately:
normal rise and fall of the chest
normal resp rhythm
breath sounds present bilaterally
chest expansion and relaxation
some to no accessory muscle use
norm skin cond.
norm mental status
norm muscle tone
receptors near the alveoli that detect when the alveolar-capillary beds are becoming abnormally engorged with blood as a result of heart failure
three basic types of abnormal breath sounds that you might hear upon auscultation of the thorax - may be early indicators of impending resp distress.
high pitched, musical, whistling sound that is best heard initially on exhalation but may also be heard during inhalation in more severe cases. an indication of swelling and constriction of the inner lining of the bronchioles.
sounds heard here represent airflow through the larger conducting airways. airway structure are still supported by cartilage. abnormal sounds heard best here include stridor and rhonchi
second intercostal space, midclavicular line
sounds hear here represent airflow through smaller conducting airways (bronchioles). you may also be able to hear some airflow into the air sacs (alveoli). the abnormal breath sound heard best in this location is wheezing
third intercostal space, anterior axillary line
fourth intercostal space, midaxillary line
while the Pt is sitting upright, the sounds heard here represent airflow into the alveoli. this is the best location to hear alveolar airflow. the abnormal sound heard here is most commonly crackles (rales)
fifth or sixth intercostal space, posterior midscapular line
snoring or rattling noises heard upon auscultation. they indicate obstruction of the larger conducting airways of the respiratory tract by thick secretions or mucus.
bubbly or crackling sounds heard during inhalation. these sounds are associated with fluid that has surrounded or filled the alveoli or very small bronchioles.
crackles AKA rales
decreased O2 in the bloodstream typically defined as an SpO2 reading of
difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
complete respiratory arrest/not breathing
increased CO2 levels in the blood
a Pt who is having difficulty breathing but has an adequate tidal volume and RR is said to be in___________.
if either tidal volume or the RR becomes or is inadequate, the Pts resp statue becomes inadequate.
the Pt is said to be in _________, since the resp tidal volume or rate is no longer able to provide an adequate ventilatory effort.
______ is when the breathing effort ceases completely. can lead to cardiac arrest in minutes
a condition in which the air sacs of the lungs are damaged and enlarged, causing breathlessness. a permanent disease characterized by destruction of the alveolar walls and distension of the alveolar sacs
COPD that involves inflammation, swelling, and thickening of the lining of the bronchi and bronchioles and excessive mucus production.
a prolonged life-threatening attack that produces inadequate breathing and severe signs and symptoms is called_______. a severe asthmatic attack that does not respond to either oxygen or medication.
an abnormally large drop is systolic BP during inspiration
a primarily acute infectious disease caused by bacterium or a virus that affects the lower resp tract and causes lung inflamation and fluid- or pus-filled alveoli. can also be cause by inhalation of toxic irritants or aspiration of vomitus and other substances
a sudden blockage of blood flow through a pulmonary artery or one of its branches, usually caused by a blood clot, but it may also be caused by an air bubble, a fat particle, a foreign body, or amniotic fluid.
______occurs when an excessive amount of fluid collects in the spaces between the alveoli and the capillaries
acute pulmonary edema
typically related to an inadequate pumping function of the heart that drastically increases the pressure in the pulmonary capillaries, which in turn forces fluid to leak into the spaced between the alveoli and capillaries and, eventually, into the alveoli themselves.
cardiogenic pulmonary edema
AKA acute resp distress syndrome (ARDS), results from destruction of the capillary bed that allows fluid to leak out.
noncardiogenic pulmonary edema
a sudden rupture of a portion of the visceral lining of the lung, not cause by trauma, that causes the lung to partially collapse
areas of weakened lung tissue
the ________ syndrome Pt is often anxious and experiences the feeling of not being able to catch his breath. is commonly associated with situations in which the Pt is emotionally upset or very excited.