Chapter 16 - Respiratory Emergencies Flashcards Preview

EMT - Basic - Prehostpital Emergency Care 10th Edition > Chapter 16 - Respiratory Emergencies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 16 - Respiratory Emergencies Deck (54):
1

the resp system can be divided into three portions :

first two:
the upper/lower with the vocal cords being the transition between the two

third:
lungs/accessory muscles

2

findings consistent with a Pt who is breathing adequately:

open airway
normal RR
normal rise and fall of the chest
normal resp rhythm
breath sounds present bilaterally
chest expansion and relaxation
some to no accessory muscle use

norm skin cond.
norm mental status
norm Spo2
norm muscle tone

3

receptors near the alveoli that detect when the alveolar-capillary beds are becoming abnormally engorged with blood as a result of heart failure

juxtacapillary receptors

4

three basic types of abnormal breath sounds that you might hear upon auscultation of the thorax - may be early indicators of impending resp distress.

wheezing
rhonchi
crackles

5

high pitched, musical, whistling sound that is best heard initially on exhalation but may also be heard during inhalation in more severe cases. an indication of swelling and constriction of the inner lining of the bronchioles.

wheezing

6

sounds heard here represent airflow through the larger conducting airways. airway structure are still supported by cartilage. abnormal sounds heard best here include stridor and rhonchi

second intercostal space, midclavicular line

7

sounds hear here represent airflow through smaller conducting airways (bronchioles). you may also be able to hear some airflow into the air sacs (alveoli). the abnormal breath sound heard best in this location is wheezing

third intercostal space, anterior axillary line

OR

fourth intercostal space, midaxillary line

8

while the Pt is sitting upright, the sounds heard here represent airflow into the alveoli. this is the best location to hear alveolar airflow. the abnormal sound heard here is most commonly crackles (rales)

fifth or sixth intercostal space, posterior midscapular line

9

snoring or rattling noises heard upon auscultation. they indicate obstruction of the larger conducting airways of the respiratory tract by thick secretions or mucus.

rhonchi

10

bubbly or crackling sounds heard during inhalation. these sounds are associated with fluid that has surrounded or filled the alveoli or very small bronchioles.

crackles AKA rales

11

decreased O2 in the bloodstream typically defined as an SpO2 reading of

hypoxemia

12

difficulty breathing or shortness of breath

dyspnea

13

complete respiratory arrest/not breathing

apnea

14

hypercarbia

increased CO2 levels in the blood

15

a Pt who is having difficulty breathing but has an adequate tidal volume and RR is said to be in___________.

respiratory distress

16

if either tidal volume or the RR becomes or is inadequate, the Pts resp statue becomes inadequate.
the Pt is said to be in _________, since the resp tidal volume or rate is no longer able to provide an adequate ventilatory effort.

respiratory failure

17

______ is when the breathing effort ceases completely. can lead to cardiac arrest in minutes

respiratory arrest

18

a condition in which the air sacs of the lungs are damaged and enlarged, causing breathlessness. a permanent disease characterized by destruction of the alveolar walls and distension of the alveolar sacs

emphysema

19

COPD that involves inflammation, swelling, and thickening of the lining of the bronchi and bronchioles and excessive mucus production.

chronic bronchitis

20

a prolonged life-threatening attack that produces inadequate breathing and severe signs and symptoms is called_______. a severe asthmatic attack that does not respond to either oxygen or medication.

status asthmaticus

21

an abnormally large drop is systolic BP during inspiration

pulsus paradoxus

22

a primarily acute infectious disease caused by bacterium or a virus that affects the lower resp tract and causes lung inflamation and fluid- or pus-filled alveoli. can also be cause by inhalation of toxic irritants or aspiration of vomitus and other substances

pneumonia

23

a sudden blockage of blood flow through a pulmonary artery or one of its branches, usually caused by a blood clot, but it may also be caused by an air bubble, a fat particle, a foreign body, or amniotic fluid.

pulmonary embolism

24

______occurs when an excessive amount of fluid collects in the spaces between the alveoli and the capillaries

acute pulmonary edema

25

typically related to an inadequate pumping function of the heart that drastically increases the pressure in the pulmonary capillaries, which in turn forces fluid to leak into the spaced between the alveoli and capillaries and, eventually, into the alveoli themselves.

cardiogenic pulmonary edema

26

AKA acute resp distress syndrome (ARDS), results from destruction of the capillary bed that allows fluid to leak out.

noncardiogenic pulmonary edema

27

a sudden rupture of a portion of the visceral lining of the lung, not cause by trauma, that causes the lung to partially collapse

spontaneous pneumothorax

28

areas of weakened lung tissue

blebs

29

the ________ syndrome Pt is often anxious and experiences the feeling of not being able to catch his breath. is commonly associated with situations in which the Pt is emotionally upset or very excited.

hyperventilation

30

signs and symptoms:
anxious, alert, and oriented
dyspneic
uses accessory muscles
thin, barrel-chest
coughing with little sputum
prolonged exhaustion
diminished breath sounds
wheezing and rhochi
pursed-lip breathing
dyspnea on minimal exhertion
tachyapnea
tachycardia
diaphoresis

emphysema

31

signs and symptoms:
cough, vigorous coughing produces sputum
typically overweight
prominent peripheral edema
chronic jugular vein distention
chronic cyanosis
scattered rales and coarse rhonchi
wheezes and possible, crackles at the base of the lungs

chronic bronchitis

32

signs and symptoms:
dyspnea
cough, worsens at night
wheezing
tachypnea
tachycardia
accessory muscle use
anxiety
possible fever
runny nose
chest tightness
pulsus paradoxus

asthma

33

signs and symptoms:
decreased appetite
fever
cough
dyspnea
tachypnea
tachycardia
chest pain
decreased chest wall movement
splinting of thorax by Pt with arm
crackles, localized wheezing, and rhonchi
altered mental status
diaphoresis
cyanosis

pneumonia

34

signs and symptoms:
sudden onset of unexplained SOB
sudden onset of sharp, stabbing chest pain
cough ( may cough blood)
tachypnea
tachycardia
syncope
cool, moist skin
restlessness, anxiety, or sense of impending doom
cyanosis
crackles
fever

pulmonary embolism

35

signs and symptoms:
dyspnea
difficulty breathing when lying flat
frothy sputum
tachycardia
anxiety, apprehension, combativeness, confusion
tripod position
fatigue
crackles and possible wheezing
cyanosis or dusky color skin
pale, moist skin
cough

pulmonary edema

36

signs and symptoms:
sudden onset of SOB
sudden onset of sharp chest pain or shoulder pain
decreased breath sounds to one side of the chest
subcutaneous emphysema
tachypnea
diaphoresis
pallor
cyanosis

spontaneous pneumothorax

37

signs and symptoms:
fatigue
nervousness and anxiety
dizziness
SOB
chest tightness
numbness and tingling around the mouth, hands, and feet
tachypnea
tachycardia
spasms of the fingers and feet causing cramps

hyperventilation syndrome

38

an inflammation affecting the upper airway, can be acute, severe, life-threatening condition if left untreated.

epiglottitis

39

signs and symptoms:
upper resp tract infection, usually 1-2 days prior
dyspnea (usually rapid onset)
high/mild fever
sore throat and pharyngeal pain
inability to swallow with drooling
anxiety
tripod
fatigue
stridor
cyanosis
trouble or pain during speaking

epiglottitis

40

resp disease characterized by uncontrolled coughing. it is highly contagious and effects the resp system and is caused by bacteria that reside in the upper airway of an infected person.

pertussis AKA whooping cough

41

signs and symptoms:
Hx of upper resp infection
sneezing, runny nose, low-grade fever
increasing cough
coughing fits
inspiratory whoop heard at end of cough burst
possible cyanosis
diminishing SpO2
exhaustion
trouble speaking and breathing during burst

pertussis (whooping cough)

42

mucous glands in the lining of the resp system that produce an overabundance in mucus, which is very thick and sticky. as the thick layer develops, there is blockage of the airways as well as an increase in the incidence of lung infections, since bacteria can readily grow in the thick mucus.

cystic fibrosis

43

signs and symptoms:
commonly a known Hx of disease
recurrent coughing
expectoration of thick mucus during coughing
Hx of pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinusitis
gastrointestinal complaints
abd pain from gas
malnutrition despite healthy app
dehydration
clubbing of the digits
trouble breathing
signs of pneumonia

cystic fibrosis

44

signs and symptoms:
Hx consistent w/an inhalation injury
presence of chemicals
finding of resp distress
cough, stridor, wheezing, or crackles
oral or pharyngeal burns
dizziness
H/A, confusion, altered mental status
seizures
cyanosis
N/V
abd distress/pain
copious secretions
vital sign changes

poisonous exposures

45

condition of the resp system caused by a virus. common VRI's include bronchiolitis, colds, and the flu.

viral respiratory infections

46

signs and symptoms:
nasal congestion
sore or scratchy throat
mild resp distress, coughing
fever (usually around 101-102)
malaise
H/A and body aches
irritability in infancts
tachypnea
exacerbation of asthma if Pt is asthmatic

viral respiratory infections

47

a drug that is commonly prescribed for Pts with uncontrolled asthma - NOT FOR EMERGENCY USE

advair

48

a condition with no respirations or respiratory effort; however, a pulse is still present.

respiratory arrest

49

commonly seen in children, involves the swelling of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi, causing breathing difficulty. the child typically does not feel well, has a sore or horse throat, and has a fever.

croup

50

pallor

pale skin

51

air trapped under the skin. felt as crackling sensations, often described as rice krispies under the fingertips

subcutaneous emphysema

52

deminished or absent breath sounds on one side of the chest mean that the lung is not being adequately ventilated because of _______, ______, or _______________.

obstruction, collapse, or surrounding air or fluid.

53

signs of inadequate breathing are present -- poor chest rise and fall, poor volume heard and felt, diminished or absent breath sounds, inadequate rate, or severely altered mental status.

respiratory failure

54

breathing is adequate (adequate chest rise and fall, good volume of air being breathed in and out, good breath sounds bilaterally, and adequate rate) but the Pt complains of difficulty in breathing.

respiratory distress

Decks in EMT - Basic - Prehostpital Emergency Care 10th Edition Class (44):