Chapter 32 - Spinal Column and Spinal Cord Trauma Flashcards Preview

EMT - Basic - Prehostpital Emergency Care 10th Edition > Chapter 32 - Spinal Column and Spinal Cord Trauma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 32 - Spinal Column and Spinal Cord Trauma Deck (29):
1

the nervous system has two major functions:

communication and control

2

consists of the brain and the spinal cord

CNS

3

consists of nerves located outside of the brain and spinal cord

peripheral nervous system

4

the bulky portion of a vertebra that faces anteriorly in the spinal column

body

5

the posterior aspect of a vertebra

spinous process

6

there are three main types of tracts within the spinal cord that are tested in the assessment to determine if spinal cord injuries exist.

motor tracts
pain tracts
light touch tracts

7

the spine is particularly susceptible to injury from the following mechanisms:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

compression
flexion
extension
rotation
lateral bending
distraction
penetration

8

spinal injury when the weight of the body is driven against the head. this is common in falls, diving accidents, motor vehicle crashes, or other accidents where a person impacts an object face first.

compression

9

spinal injury when there is severe forward movement of the head in which the chin meets the chest, or when the torso is excessively curled forward

flexion

10

spinal injury when there is severe backward movement of the head in which the neck is stretched, or when the torso is severely arched backward.

extension

11

spinal injury when there is lateral movement of the head or spine beyond its normal rotation

rotation

12

spinal injury when the body or neck is bent severely from the side

lateral bending

13

spinal injury when the vertebrae and spinal cord are stretched and pulled apart. this is common in hangings

distraction

14

spinal injury when there is injury from gunshots, stabbings, or other types of penetrating trauma that involve the cranium or spinal column.

penetration

15

results when an area of the spinal cord has been completely transected (cut crossways) either physically or physiologically

complete spinal cord injury

16

a temporary concussion like insult to the spinal cord that causes effect below the level of injury. such an injury usually occurs high in the cervical region.

spinal cord shock

17

condition associated with injury to the spinal cord that results in vasodilation and relative hypovolemia

neurogenic hypotension

18

injury to the spinal cord that does not affect all spinal cord tracts: motor, light, touch, and pain. may produce conflicting and confusing assessment findings as some motor and sensory functions remain intact while others do not.

incomplete spinal cord injury

19

the three most common types of incomplete spinal cord injury:

central cord syndrome
anterior cord syndrome
brown sequard syndrome

20

loss of function in upper extremities caused by injury to the middle portion of the spinal cord

central cord syndrome

21

loss of most function below the site of injury to the anterior portion of the spinal cord

anterior cord syndrome

22

loss of different functions on opposite sides of the body from injury to one side of the spinal cord

brown sequard syndrome

23

the medial (inner) aspects of the motor and pain tracts control the ________ extremities

upper

24

the lateral (outer) portions of the tracts control the ________ extremities

lower

25

motor function assessment - upper extremities:
1
2
3
4

flex your arms (bend arms at the elbow) across chest
(tests function at C6)

extend your arms (straighten arms to the side of the body)
(tests function at C7)

spread your fingers out on both hands and don't let me squeeze them together
(tests function at T1)

hold out both arms and dont let me push your hand down (done while you support the hand under the wrist)
(tests function at C7)

26

motor function assessment - lower extremities:
1
2

push down against my hands with your feet (place hands under feet)
(tests motor function at S1 and S2)

pull up against my hands with your feet (place your hands on the tops of the feet)
(tests motor function at the level of L5)

27

three situations in which you will have to move a patient with a suspected spine injury before immobilizing him to a long board or short spinal device:

scene is not safe

pt condition is so unstable that you need to move and transport immediately

pt blocks access to a second or more seriously injured pt

28

when the time saved by immediate extrication between life and death- a _______ is performed.

rapid extrication

29

there are only two circumstances in which a melmet should be premoved:

if it does not adequately secure the head because it is too large for the pt

if you cannot gain access to the airway

Decks in EMT - Basic - Prehostpital Emergency Care 10th Edition Class (44):