Flashcards in Chapter 19 - Seizures and Syncope Deck (19):
a sudden onset of random, continuing discharges of electrical activity in the brain, which can lead to unusual manifestations, from staring spells to gross muscle contraction.
jerky muscle contractions
chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizures
________ seizures involve both hemispheres of the brain and the reticular activating system, which typically results in a loss of consciousness. activity is usually characterized by rhythmic, tonic-clonic muscle contractions (convulsions).
______ seizures are typically related to abnormal activity in just one cerebral hemisphere. either simple of complex.
simple - remains conscious
complex - alt. mental or unresponsive
_____seizures usually due to a genetic or unknown cause.
______ or ______ seizures do not result from a genetic cause but occur as the result of an insult to the body, such as fever, infection, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, drug intoxication, drug withdrawl, eclampsia in pregnancy, degenerative brain diseases, or imbalances in the electorlytes in the body. do not produce partial seizures.
secondary or reactive
a Pt. who suffers generalized motor seizures that last more than 5 minutes or seizures that occur consecutively without a period of responsiveness between them is considered to be in _____________.
this type of seizure usually begins with abnormal electrical activity low in the cerebral cortex that spreads downward, affecting the reticular activating system (RAS). the RAS is responsible for the wake/sleep activity.
generalized tonic-clonic seizure (grand mal seizure)
the _____ serves as a warning that a seizure is going to being and involves some type of sensory perception by the Pt. may be a sound, abnormal twitch, axiety, dizziness, a smell or odor, an unpleasant feeling in the stomach, visual disturbance, or odd taste.
the Pt. _______ sometime after the aura
seizure phase where the Pts muscles become contracted and tense, and the Pt exhibits extreme muscular rigidity with arching of the back.
seizure phase where the Pt has extreme muscular rigidity with hyperextension of the back.
seizure phase where muscle spasms alternate with relaxation, producing typical violent and jerky seizure activity.
clonic phase (convulsion)
seizure phase where the Pt begins to recover. mental status is altered and may range from complete unresponsiveness to confusion and disorientation. progressively improves.
this type of seizure involves only one cerebral hemisphere. generally produces jerky muscle activity in one area of the body, arm, leg, or face. Pt remains awake and aware of the seizure
simple partial seizure.
seizures which occur most commonly in children, characterized by a blank stare, beginning and ending abruptly, and lasting only a few seconds. Pt is unaware of what is occuring.
seizure caused by a high fever, most common in children between 6mo and 6 yrs of age. secondary or reactive generalized seizures.
febrile seizures (fever)