Flashcards in Chapter 7 - Anatomy Physiology and Medical Terminology Deck (212):
The function of the living body and its parts. (How the body works)
The patient is lying face up on his back.
The patient is laying face down on his stomach.
The patient is lying on his left or right side.
Lateral recumbent (recovery) position
The patient is lying on his back with his upper body elevated at 45° to 60° angle.
The patient is lying on his back with the upper body elevated at an angle less than 45°
The patient is lying on his back with the legs elevated higher than the head and body and inclined plane. (Head down, legs up)
Refers to the structure of the body and the relationship of its parts to each other. (How the body is made.)
: to make (a treatment or procedure) inadvisable
This is an alternative to the Trendelenburg position, we're only the feet and legs are elevated approximately 12 inches.
Imaginary divisions of the body.
Vertical plane that runs lengthwise and divides the body into right and left segments.
The segments do not have to be equal.
If the plane divides the body into two equal halves it would be referred to as the_____.
Mid sagittal plane
The plane that divides the body into front and back halves.
Front or coronal plane
Plane that is parallel to the ground and divides the body into upper and lower halves. It may be referred to as the axial plane.
Transverse or horizontal plane
(With the patient facing you) Imagine a line drawn vertically through the middle of the patient's body, beginning at the top of the head and continuing down through the nose and the Naval and to the ground between the legs. Corresponds with the mid sagittal plane because it divides the body into equal halves
Visualize a patient standing in profile. Now drawn imaginary line vertically from the middle of the patients armpit down to the ankle.
A vertical line drawn side to side through the body from the mid axillary line on one side to the mid axillary line on the opposite side forms the frontal plane and divides the body into the ______ and the ______.
Anterior plane (patients front) and posterior plane (patients back)
Visualize the normal anatomical position. Drawing imaginary line horizontally through the patients wrist.
A horizontal line drawn through the body, front to back, at the waist forms the transverse plane and divides the body into the _____ and the ____.
Superior plane (above the waist) and the inferior plane (below the waist.
Toward the front
Toward the back
Towards the head or above the point of reference
Toward the feet or below the point of reference
Toward the back or backbone (spine)
Toward the front or belly (abdomen)
Toward the midline or center of the body
The left or right of the midline, or away from the midline of the body.
Both left and right, meaning "on both sides."
Refers to one side
The opposite side
Near the point of reference
Distant; or far from the point of reference.
Refers to the center of each of the collarbones (clavicle).
Extends from the center of either collarbone down the anterior thorax.
Refers to the center of the armpit
Extends from the middle of the armpit to the ankle.
Refers to the sole of the foot.
Right upper quadrant
Right lower quadrant
Left upper quadrant
Left lower quadrant
The skeletal system serves four functions :
Giving the body it's shape
Protecting vital organs
Allowing for movement
Storing minerals and producing blood cells
The skeletal has six basic components :
The interlocking bones of the cranium :
Bed of the nose
Fused bones of the upper jaw
Irregularly shaped blocks of bone
Between each two vertebrae is a fluid-filled pad of tough elastic cartilage called the ________.
C1-C7 (neck) The first seven vertebrae form the _______, which is the most prone to injury.
T1-T12 (upper back) The 12 thoracic vertebrae that are directly inferior to the cervical spine from the upper back. The twelve pairs of _____ ribs are attached to the spine posteriorly and help support the vertebrae.
L1-L5 (lower back) The next five vertebrae from the lower back, and are the least mobile of the vertebrae. Most lower back injuries involve muscles, not vertebrae.
S1-S5 (back wall of the pelvis) The next five vertebrae are fused together to form the rigid part of the posterior side of the pelvis.
The last four vertebrae are fused together and do not have the protrusions characteristic of the other vertebrae.
The _____, or chest, is composed of the ribs, the _____(breastbone), and the thoracic spine.
Thorax / sternum
Flat narrow bone in the middle of the anterior chest.
Attached to the superior portion of the sternum
The superior portion of the sternum
The inferior portion of the sternum
Doughnut shaped structure that consists of several bones, including the sacrum and coccyx.
Each side of the pelvis is an______.
The anterior and inferior portion of the pelvis.
The posterior and inferior portion of the pelvis.
The limbs of the body, the arms and the legs.
On the lateral aspect of each hip is the hip joint. The joint is made up of the pelvic socket, called the_____, into which fits the rounded top, or head, of the_____(thighbone).
Acetabulum / femur
The knee joint is protected and stabilized in the front by the____, a small, triangular shaped bone.
Weight-bearing bone located at the anterior and medial side of the leg. It's broad upper surface receives the rounded end of the distal femur to form the knee joint. The much smaller end forms the medial malleolus of the ankle.
Attached to the tibia at the top and is located at the lateral side of the leg parallel to the tibia.
A group of bones that make up the proximal portion of the foot.
Form the fingers and toes.
Each clavicle and scapula form a shoulder girdle, the tip of which is called the _____.
The proximal portion of the arm is the ______ the largest bone in the upper extremity.
Lateral bone of the forearm. Located on the thumb side.
The medial bone of the forearm.
Located on the little-finger side.
Part of the ulna that forms the bony prominence of the elbow.
The wrist - Consists of 8 bones
The structural strength of the hand comes from ______.
The place where one bone connects to another
Bending toward the body or decreasing the angle between the bones or parts of the body.
Straightening away from the body or increasing the angle between the bones or parts of the body.
Movement away from the midline.
Movement toward the midline.
A combination of the four preceding motions as is possible with the shoulder joint
Turing the forearm so the palm of the hand is turned toward the back
Turning the forearm so the palm of the hand is turned toward the front
This type of joint permits the widest range of motion/flexion, extension, abduction, and rotation. Examples: joints at the shoulder and hip.
(elbow, knee, and finger) Permit flexion and extension. Elbow joints have forward movement (the anterior bone surfaces approach each other), while knee joints have backward movement (the posterior bone surfaces approach each other).
This type of joint allows for a turning motion, and includes the joints between the head and neck at the first and second cervical vertebrae and those in the wrist.
Simplest movement between bones; where one bone slides across another to the point where surrounding structures restrict the motion. (Connect the small bones in the hands and feet.)
This joint is shaped to permit combinations of limited movements along perpendicular planes. For example, the ankle allows the foot to turn inward slightly as it moves up and down.
Modified ball-and-socket joint that permits limited motion in two directions. In the wrist, for example, it allows the hand to move up and down and side to side, but not to rotate completely.
Loss of continuity of the structure of a bone.
Muscles that move blood through the veins, bile from the gallbladder, and food through the digestive tract.
Decreasing the diameter of the vessel. Increases the resistance inside the vessel, making it harder for the blood to pass through, and results in an increase in pressure.
Increasing the diameter of the vessel. Results in a decrease in the resistance inside the vessel, making it easier for the blood to flow through, and decreasing the pressure.
Three types of muscle :
Can be contracted and relaxed by will of the individual. Generally attached at one or both ends to bone by tendons. A few are attached to skin, cartilage, organs (such as the eyeball), or other muscles (such as the tongue).
Skeletal muscle (voluntary)
Made up of large fibers that carry out the automatic muscular functions of the body through rhythmic, wavelike movements. Move blood through the veins, bile from the gallbladder, and food through the digestive tract.
Smooth muscle (involuntary)
Found only in the walls of the heart. It has the property of automaticity.
The basic functions of the respiratory system are :
Oxygenation and removal of carbon dioxide
Serving as a buffer to maintain a normal acid-based balance
Refers to the process of moving oxygen and carbon dioxide across membranes, in and out of the alveoli, capillaries, and cells. Deals with the actual gas exchange process.
The form of respiration in which oxygen molecules move across a membrane from an area of high oxygen concentration to an area of low oxygen concentration.
The mechanical process by which air is moved in and out of the lungs.
Oxygen from the air is transported to the blood through the _________.
The upper airway consists of the following structures :
Nose and mouth
The lower airway is composed of the following structures :
From the back of the nose or mouth, the air enters the _______, the common passageway for food and air.
The oral portion of the pharynx.
Air from the nose enters the nasal portion of the pharynx, or the _______.
At its lower end the pharynx divides into two structures -- the __________, which leads to the stomach, and the _______, which leads to the lungs.
Esophagus / Trachea
The trachea is anterior to the esophagus
Carries air from the nose and mouth to the lungs.
Houses vocal cords and is commonly called the "voice box."
Anterior cartilage that covers the larynx. Can be easily felt through the skin with your fingertips at the front of the neck.
The most inferior part of the larynx. A firm, full ring of cartilage that forms the lower edge of the larynx.
The trachea is protected by a small, leaf shaped flap called the_____. Usually, this flap automatically covers the entrance of the larynx during swallowing to keep food and liquid from entering the trachea and lungs.
The distal portion of the trachea branches into two main tubes, or____, one branching off to each long.
Each bronchus divides and subdivides into smaller _______, somewhat like the branches of a tree.
At the ends of each bronchioles are thousands of tiny air sacs called____, each enclosed in a network of capillaries (tiny blood vessels). This is the site of gas exchange in the lungs.
The principal organs of respiration. Two large, lobed organs that house thousands of tiny alveolar sacs responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
A powerful, dome shaped muscle essential to breathing. Also separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.
A closed system that transports blood to all parts of the body.
Highly efficient pump, is a chambered muscular organ that lies within the chest in the thoracic cavity between the two lungs.
A double walled sac that encloses the heart, give support, and prevents friction as the heart moves within this protective sac.
Upper chambers of the heart, called the_____, receives blood from the veins.
The lower chambers of the heart that pumps blood out to the arteries.
The four valves of the heart are:
Mitral valve, also known as the bicuspid valve
Between the right atrium and the right ventricle
At the base of the pulmonary artery in the right ventricle
Mitral valve, AKA bicuspid valve
Between the left atrium and the left ventricle
At the base of the aortic artery in the left ventricle
Middle layer of muscle, that contracts and eject blood from the heart.
Carries blood away from the heart.
The major artery from the heart, lies in front of the spine and passes through the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
The artery vessels that supply the heart itself with blood.
The arteries that supply the brain and head with blood. Pulsations of these arteries can be felt on either side of the neck.
This artery is the major artery of the thigh and supplies the groin and leg with blood. Pulsations in this artery can be felt in the groin at the crease between the abdomen and the thigh.
Pulsations of this artery, an artery in the foot, can be felt at the top surface of the foot on the big toe side.
Dorsalis pedis arteries
This artery travels from the calf to the foot. Pulsations of this artery can be felt posterior to the medial malleolus (ankle bone).
Posterior tibial arteries
This artery is the major artery of the upper arm. It's pulsations can be felt at the front of the elbow (antecubital region) and on the medial arm midway between the shoulder and elbow. This artery is used when determining blood pressure and when assessing a pulse in an infant.
This artery is the major artery of the arm distal to the elbow joint. It's pulsations can be felt proximal to the thumb on the wrist. It is the artery that is usually assessed when taking a persons pulse.
These arteries, which originate at the right ventricle of the heart, carry oxygen depleted blood to the lungs, where the blood is oxygenated and returned to the heart for circulation throughout the body. The only artery that carry deoxygenated, or oxygen depleted, blood.
The smallest kind of artery. Carry blood from the arteries into the capillaries.
A tiny blood vessel that connects the arteriole to a venule. Has walls that allow for the exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste at the cellular level.
The smallest branch of the veins, is connected to the distal ends of capillaries.
Carries blood back to the heart. All except the pulmonary; Carry oxygen depleted blood.
Carries oxygen depleted blood back to the right atrium, where it begins circulation through the heart and lungs.
Enters the top of the right atrium, carrying oxygen depleted blood from the upper body.
Superior vena cava
Enters the bottom of the right atrium, carrying oxygen depleted blood from the lower body
Inferior vena cava
Carry oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium. They are the only veins that carry oxygenated blood.
Give the blood it's color, carry oxygen to the body cells, and carry carbon dioxide away from the cells.
Red blood cells
Blood cell that is part of the bodies immune system and help to defend against infection.
White blood cells
_______ and other clotting factors are essential to the formation of blood clots, necessary to stop bleeding.
The liquid part of the blood, which carries blood cells and transports nutrients to all tissues. Also transports waste products to organs where they can be excreted from the body.
When the left ventricle contracts, sending a wave of blood through the arteries, the____, or wave of propelled blood, can be felt at various points called_________.
Pulse / pulse points
A pulse felt on the left side of the chest over the left ventricle.
The force exerted by the blood on the interior walls of the arteries.
Pressure exerted against the walls of the arteries when the left ventricle contracts.
Systolic blood pressure
Pressure exerted against the walls of the arteries when the left ventricle is at rest, or between contractions.
Diastolic blood pressure
The force exerted on the inside of the vessel walls as a result of blood pressure and volume.
Swelling occurring in the tissues.
The delivery of oxygen, glucose, and other nutrients to the cells of all organ systems, and the elimination of carbon dioxide and other waste products, which results from the constant adequate circulation of blood through the capillaries.
Shock, or________, is the insufficient supply of oxygen and other nutrients to some of the body's cells and the inadequate elimination of carbon dioxide and other wastes that result from inadequate circulation of blood.
The two most important gases the EMT is concerned with are :
Oxygen and carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide is transported away from the cell and blown off by the lungs. This kind of metabolism is known as_________.
Aerobic metabolism. Aerobic means "with oxygen." Metabolism refers to chemical and physical changes that take place within the cell.
The process of metabolizing glucose without producing much energy is known as________.
Anaerobic metabolism. Anaerobic means "without oxygen."
Controls voluntary and involuntary activity of the human body. Nerves carry impulses from tissues and organs to the nerve centers, and from nerve centers to other tissues and organs.
Consists of the brain, which is located within the cranium, and the spinal cord, which is located within the spinal column.
Central nervous system
Three main subdivisions of the brain :
The outermost portion of the brain, occupies nearly all the cranial cavity. It controls specific body functions, such as sent station, thought, and associative memory. It also initiates and manages motions that are the conscious control of the individual
Also called the "small brain," is located in the posterior and inferior aspect of the cranium. It coordinates muscle activity and maintains balance through impulses from the eyes and the ears. Though it cannot initiate a muscle contraction, they can hold muscles in a state of partial contraction.
Contains the mesencephalon, the pond, and the medulla oblongata.
The Medela oblongata consists of three major control centers:
The respiratory center
The cardiac center
The vasomotor center
Controls the rate and depth of respiration
Responsible for regulating the heart rate and force of contraction of the ventricles.
Controls blood pressure, which produces dilation and constriction of the blood vessels.
Composed of the nerves located outside the spinal cord and brain.
Peripheral nervous system
_______nerves carries sensory information from the body to the spinal cord and brain.
_______ nerves Carrie motor information from the brain and spinal cord to the body.
Influences the activity of skeletal muscle and movements.
Voluntary nervous system
Influences the activities of smooth muscles and glands. Is partially independent of the rest of the nervous system.
Automatic nervous system
The nervous system activated when the body is challenged by stressors: trauma, blood loss, fright, and so on. It's actions are commonly known as the fight or flight response.
Sympathetic nervous system
Nervous system that returns body processes to normal or depresses body function.
Parasympathetic nervous system
Two components of the nervous system that controls the consciousness are:
Cerebral hemispheres and the reticular activating system (RAS)
Made up of ductless glands, the bodies regulators. Secretions from these glands are called hormones, chemical substances that have effects on the activity of certain organs.
Located in the anterior neck, Regulates metabolism, growth and development, and the activity of the nervous system.
Behind the thyroid, produces A hormone necessary for the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus in the bones.
Sits atop the kidneys, secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine, Postpone muscle fatigue, increase the storage of sugar, control kidney function, and regulate the metabolism of salt and water.
Produce the hormones that govern reproduction and sex characteristics.
The gonads (ovaries and testes)
In the pancreas, make insulin, which allows glucose to enter cells, and also produce glucagon, a hormone that raises the glucose level in the blood.
Islets of langerhans
At the base of the brain, is considered to be the "master gland." It regulates growth, the thyroid and parathyroid glands, the gonads, metabolism of fatty acids and some basic proteins, blood sugar reactions, and urinary excretion.
Its effects cause the vessels to constrict. The vessels of the skin are significantly affected. Blood is shunted to the core of the body. Causes the skin to become cool and pale. Also causes the sweat glands to release sweat.
Effects are thought to regulate the release of alpha 1
Effects cause smooth muscle to dilate, especially in the bronchioles and in some vessels.
Used to treat patients with severe allergic reactions to combat the problems found in the condition, primarily vasodilation and bronchoconstriction.
The skin has three layers:
Outer most layer of skin, is actually composer of four layers of cells.
Second layer of the skin, much thicker than the epidermis. Contains the vast network of blood vessels that supply the skin as well as the hair follicles, oil glands, sweat glands, and sensory nerves. Gives the skin it's elasticity and strength.
Just below the dermis is a layer of fatty tissue called the _______.
The four accessory structures of the skin are:
Hair, nails, sweat glands, and oil glands.
Composed of alimentary tract (the passage through which food travels) and the accessory organs (organs that help prepare food for absorption and use by tissues of the body).
Large, hollow organ, that is the main organ of the digestive system.
Flat, solid organ that lies just inferior and posterior to the stomach. It's secretes pancreatic juices that eight in the digestion of fats, starches, and proteins. The islets of Langerhans, produce the insulin that regulates the amount of sugar in the blood stream.
The largest solid organ in the abdomen, lies immediately beneath the diaphragm in the right upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity. Produces bile, which aids in the digestion of fat. It's Doris sugar until they are needed by the body. It also produces components necessary for immune function, blood clotting, and the production of plasma. Finally, the toxic substances produced by digestion are rendered harmless in the_______.
A solid organ located in the left upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity. It helps in the filtration of blood and, because it contains a dense network of blood vessels, serves as a reservoir of blood the body can use in emergencies such as hemorrhage. Although it lives among the digestive organs, the _______ has no digestive function.
Hollow pouch. Part of the bile duct leading from the liver, acts as a reservoir for bile. When food enters the small intestine, contractions are stimulated that empty the ________ into the small intestine, where the bile aids in the digestion of fat.
Receives food from the stomach and secretions from the pancreas and liver. Digestion of food continues, where food is completely broken down into a form that can be used by the body. Nutrients are absorbed through the walls and circulated through the bloodstream to all parts of the body.
The small intestine
Also called the colon. The parts of food that cannot be absorbed by the body are passed as waste products from the small intestine. As these waste products move through, their water is absorbed. What remains is the stool that is then passed through the rectum and the anus.
The large intestine
The ____ process includes chewing, swallowing, peristalsis (The rhythmic movement of matter through the digestive tract), and defecation (The elimination of digestive wastes).
The ____ process of digestion occurs when enzymes, or digestive juices, break foods down into simple components that can be absorbed and used by the body.
filters and excretes waste from the blood.
Urinary system or renal system