Chapter 7 - Anatomy Physiology and Medical Terminology Flashcards Preview

EMT - Basic - Prehostpital Emergency Care 10th Edition > Chapter 7 - Anatomy Physiology and Medical Terminology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 7 - Anatomy Physiology and Medical Terminology Deck (212):
1

The function of the living body and its parts. (How the body works)

Physiology

2

The patient is lying face up on his back.

Supine

3

The patient is laying face down on his stomach.

Prone

4

The patient is lying on his left or right side.

Lateral recumbent (recovery) position

5

The patient is lying on his back with his upper body elevated at 45° to 60° angle.

Fowler's position

6

The patient is lying on his back with the upper body elevated at an angle less than 45°

Semi-Fowler's position

7

The patient is lying on his back with the legs elevated higher than the head and body and inclined plane. (Head down, legs up)

Trendelenburg position

8

Refers to the structure of the body and the relationship of its parts to each other. (How the body is made.)

Anatomy

9

: to make (a treatment or procedure) inadvisable

Contraindicate

10

This is an alternative to the Trendelenburg position, we're only the feet and legs are elevated approximately 12 inches.

Shock position

11

Imaginary divisions of the body.

Anatomical planes

12

Vertical plane that runs lengthwise and divides the body into right and left segments.

The segments do not have to be equal.

If the plane divides the body into two equal halves it would be referred to as the_____.

Sagittal plane
Mid sagittal plane

13

The plane that divides the body into front and back halves.

Front or coronal plane

14

Plane that is parallel to the ground and divides the body into upper and lower halves. It may be referred to as the axial plane.

Transverse or horizontal plane

15

(With the patient facing you) Imagine a line drawn vertically through the middle of the patient's body, beginning at the top of the head and continuing down through the nose and the Naval and to the ground between the legs. Corresponds with the mid sagittal plane because it divides the body into equal halves

Midline

16

Visualize a patient standing in profile. Now drawn imaginary line vertically from the middle of the patients armpit down to the ankle.

Midaxillary line

17

A vertical line drawn side to side through the body from the mid axillary line on one side to the mid axillary line on the opposite side forms the frontal plane and divides the body into the ______ and the ______.

Anterior plane (patients front) and posterior plane (patients back)

18

Visualize the normal anatomical position. Drawing imaginary line horizontally through the patients wrist.

Transverse line

19

A horizontal line drawn through the body, front to back, at the waist forms the transverse plane and divides the body into the _____ and the ____.

Superior plane (above the waist) and the inferior plane (below the waist.

20

Anterior

Toward the front

21

Posterior

Toward the back

22

Superior

Towards the head or above the point of reference

23

Inferior

Toward the feet or below the point of reference

24

Dorsal

Toward the back or backbone (spine)

25

Ventral

Toward the front or belly (abdomen)

26

Medial

Toward the midline or center of the body

27

Lateral

The left or right of the midline, or away from the midline of the body.

28

Bilateral

Both left and right, meaning "on both sides."

29

Unilateral

Refers to one side

30

Contralateral

The opposite side

31

Proximal

Near the point of reference

32

Distal

Distant; or far from the point of reference.

33

Refers to the center of each of the collarbones (clavicle).

Midclavicular

34

Extends from the center of either collarbone down the anterior thorax.

Midclavicular line

35

Refers to the center of the armpit

Midaxillary

36

Extends from the middle of the armpit to the ankle.

Midaxillary line

37

Refers to the sole of the foot.

Plantar

38

Abdominal quadrants

Right upper quadrant
Right lower quadrant
Left upper quadrant
Left lower quadrant

39

The skeletal system serves four functions :

Giving the body it's shape
Protecting vital organs
Allowing for movement
Storing minerals and producing blood cells

40

The skeletal has six basic components :

Skull
Spinal column
Thorax
Pelvis
Upper extremities
Lower extremities

41

The interlocking bones of the cranium :

Occipital
Two parietal
Two temporal
Frontal

42

Orbits

Eye sockets

43

Nasal bones

Bed of the nose

44

Maxillae

Fused bones of the upper jaw

45

Zygomatic bones

Cheekbones

46

Mandible

Lower jaw

47

Irregularly shaped blocks of bone

Vertebrae

48

Between each two vertebrae is a fluid-filled pad of tough elastic cartilage called the ________.

Intervertebral disk

49

C1-C7 (neck) The first seven vertebrae form the _______, which is the most prone to injury.

Cervical spine

50

T1-T12 (upper back) The 12 thoracic vertebrae that are directly inferior to the cervical spine from the upper back. The twelve pairs of _____ ribs are attached to the spine posteriorly and help support the vertebrae.

Thoracic spine

51

L1-L5 (lower back) The next five vertebrae from the lower back, and are the least mobile of the vertebrae. Most lower back injuries involve muscles, not vertebrae.

Lumbar spine

52

S1-S5 (back wall of the pelvis) The next five vertebrae are fused together to form the rigid part of the posterior side of the pelvis.

Sacral spine

53

The last four vertebrae are fused together and do not have the protrusions characteristic of the other vertebrae.

Coccyx

54

The _____, or chest, is composed of the ribs, the _____(breastbone), and the thoracic spine.

Thorax / sternum

55

Flat narrow bone in the middle of the anterior chest.

Sternum

56

Attached to the superior portion of the sternum

Clavicle

57

The superior portion of the sternum

Manubrium

58

The inferior portion of the sternum

Xiphoid process

59

Doughnut shaped structure that consists of several bones, including the sacrum and coccyx.

Pelvis

60

Each side of the pelvis is an______.

Iliac crest

61

The anterior and inferior portion of the pelvis.

Pubis

62

The posterior and inferior portion of the pelvis.

Ischium

63

The limbs of the body, the arms and the legs.

Extremities

64

On the lateral aspect of each hip is the hip joint. The joint is made up of the pelvic socket, called the_____, into which fits the rounded top, or head, of the_____(thighbone).

Acetabulum / femur

65

The knee joint is protected and stabilized in the front by the____, a small, triangular shaped bone.

Patella

66

Weight-bearing bone located at the anterior and medial side of the leg. It's broad upper surface receives the rounded end of the distal femur to form the knee joint. The much smaller end forms the medial malleolus of the ankle.

Tibia

67

Attached to the tibia at the top and is located at the lateral side of the leg parallel to the tibia.

Fibula

68

Calcaneus

Heel bone

69

A group of bones that make up the proximal portion of the foot.

Tarsals

70

Form the fingers and toes.

Phalanges

71

Scapula

Shoulder blade

72

Each clavicle and scapula form a shoulder girdle, the tip of which is called the _____.

Acromion

73

The proximal portion of the arm is the ______ the largest bone in the upper extremity.

Humerus

74

Radius

Lateral bone of the forearm. Located on the thumb side.

75

Ulna

The medial bone of the forearm.
Located on the little-finger side.

76

Part of the ulna that forms the bony prominence of the elbow.

Olecranon

77

Carpals

The wrist - Consists of 8 bones

78

The structural strength of the hand comes from ______.

Metacarpals

79

The place where one bone connects to another

Joints

80

Bending toward the body or decreasing the angle between the bones or parts of the body.

Flexion

81

Straightening away from the body or increasing the angle between the bones or parts of the body.

Extension

82

Movement away from the midline.

Abduction

83

Movement toward the midline.

Adduction

84

A combination of the four preceding motions as is possible with the shoulder joint

Circumduction

85

Turing the forearm so the palm of the hand is turned toward the back

Pronation

86

Turning the forearm so the palm of the hand is turned toward the front

Supination

87

This type of joint permits the widest range of motion/flexion, extension, abduction, and rotation. Examples: joints at the shoulder and hip.

Ball-and-socket joint

88

(elbow, knee, and finger) Permit flexion and extension. Elbow joints have forward movement (the anterior bone surfaces approach each other), while knee joints have backward movement (the posterior bone surfaces approach each other).

Hinged joint

89

This type of joint allows for a turning motion, and includes the joints between the head and neck at the first and second cervical vertebrae and those in the wrist.

Pivot joint

90

Simplest movement between bones; where one bone slides across another to the point where surrounding structures restrict the motion. (Connect the small bones in the hands and feet.)

Gliding joint

91

This joint is shaped to permit combinations of limited movements along perpendicular planes. For example, the ankle allows the foot to turn inward slightly as it moves up and down.

Saddle joint

92

Modified ball-and-socket joint that permits limited motion in two directions. In the wrist, for example, it allows the hand to move up and down and side to side, but not to rotate completely.

Condyloid joint

93

Loss of continuity of the structure of a bone.

Fracture

94

Muscles that move blood through the veins, bile from the gallbladder, and food through the digestive tract.

Smooth muscle

95

Decreasing the diameter of the vessel. Increases the resistance inside the vessel, making it harder for the blood to pass through, and results in an increase in pressure.

Vasoconstriction

96

Increasing the diameter of the vessel. Results in a decrease in the resistance inside the vessel, making it easier for the blood to flow through, and decreasing the pressure.

Vasodilation

97

Three types of muscle :

Skeletal (voluntary)
Smooth (involuntary)
Cardiac muscle

98

Can be contracted and relaxed by will of the individual. Generally attached at one or both ends to bone by tendons. A few are attached to skin, cartilage, organs (such as the eyeball), or other muscles (such as the tongue).

Skeletal muscle (voluntary)

99

Made up of large fibers that carry out the automatic muscular functions of the body through rhythmic, wavelike movements. Move blood through the veins, bile from the gallbladder, and food through the digestive tract.

Smooth muscle (involuntary)

100

Found only in the walls of the heart. It has the property of automaticity.

Cardiac muscle

101

The basic functions of the respiratory system are :

Respiration
Ventilation
Oxygenation and removal of carbon dioxide
Serving as a buffer to maintain a normal acid-based balance

102

Refers to the process of moving oxygen and carbon dioxide across membranes, in and out of the alveoli, capillaries, and cells. Deals with the actual gas exchange process.

Respiration

103

The form of respiration in which oxygen molecules move across a membrane from an area of high oxygen concentration to an area of low oxygen concentration.

Oxygenation

104

The mechanical process by which air is moved in and out of the lungs.

Ventilation

105

Oxygen from the air is transported to the blood through the _________.

Respiratory system

106

The upper airway consists of the following structures :

Nose and mouth
Pharynx
Nasopharynx
Larynx

107

The lower airway is composed of the following structures :

Trachea
Bronchi
Bronchioles
Alveoli

108

From the back of the nose or mouth, the air enters the _______, the common passageway for food and air.

Pharynx (throat)

109

The oral portion of the pharynx.

Oropharynx

110

Air from the nose enters the nasal portion of the pharynx, or the _______.

Nasopharynx

111

At its lower end the pharynx divides into two structures -- the __________, which leads to the stomach, and the _______, which leads to the lungs.

Esophagus / Trachea
The trachea is anterior to the esophagus

112

Carries air from the nose and mouth to the lungs.

Trachea

113

Houses vocal cords and is commonly called the "voice box."

Larynx

114

Anterior cartilage that covers the larynx. Can be easily felt through the skin with your fingertips at the front of the neck.

Thyroid cartilage

115

The most inferior part of the larynx. A firm, full ring of cartilage that forms the lower edge of the larynx.

Cricoid cartilage

116

The trachea is protected by a small, leaf shaped flap called the_____. Usually, this flap automatically covers the entrance of the larynx during swallowing to keep food and liquid from entering the trachea and lungs.

Epiglottis

117

The distal portion of the trachea branches into two main tubes, or____, one branching off to each long.

Bronchi

118

Each bronchus divides and subdivides into smaller _______, somewhat like the branches of a tree.

Bronchioles

119

At the ends of each bronchioles are thousands of tiny air sacs called____, each enclosed in a network of capillaries (tiny blood vessels). This is the site of gas exchange in the lungs.

Alveoli

120

The principal organs of respiration. Two large, lobed organs that house thousands of tiny alveolar sacs responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Lungs

121

A powerful, dome shaped muscle essential to breathing. Also separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.

Diaphragm

122

A closed system that transports blood to all parts of the body.

Circulatory system

123

Highly efficient pump, is a chambered muscular organ that lies within the chest in the thoracic cavity between the two lungs.

Heart

124

A double walled sac that encloses the heart, give support, and prevents friction as the heart moves within this protective sac.

Pericardium

125

Upper chambers of the heart, called the_____, receives blood from the veins.

Atria

126

The lower chambers of the heart that pumps blood out to the arteries.

Ventricles

127

The four valves of the heart are:

Tricuspid valve
Pulmonary valve
Mitral valve, also known as the bicuspid valve
Aortic valve

128

Tricuspid valve

Between the right atrium and the right ventricle

129

Pulmonary valve

At the base of the pulmonary artery in the right ventricle

130

Mitral valve, AKA bicuspid valve

Between the left atrium and the left ventricle

131

Aortic valve

At the base of the aortic artery in the left ventricle

132

Middle layer of muscle, that contracts and eject blood from the heart.

Myocardium

133

Carries blood away from the heart.

Artery

134

The major artery from the heart, lies in front of the spine and passes through the thoracic and abdominal cavities.

Aorta

135

The artery vessels that supply the heart itself with blood.

Coronary arteries

136

The arteries that supply the brain and head with blood. Pulsations of these arteries can be felt on either side of the neck.

Carotid arteries

137

This artery is the major artery of the thigh and supplies the groin and leg with blood. Pulsations in this artery can be felt in the groin at the crease between the abdomen and the thigh.

Femoral arteries

138

Pulsations of this artery, an artery in the foot, can be felt at the top surface of the foot on the big toe side.

Dorsalis pedis arteries

139

This artery travels from the calf to the foot. Pulsations of this artery can be felt posterior to the medial malleolus (ankle bone).

Posterior tibial arteries

140

This artery is the major artery of the upper arm. It's pulsations can be felt at the front of the elbow (antecubital region) and on the medial arm midway between the shoulder and elbow. This artery is used when determining blood pressure and when assessing a pulse in an infant.

Brachial arteries

141

This artery is the major artery of the arm distal to the elbow joint. It's pulsations can be felt proximal to the thumb on the wrist. It is the artery that is usually assessed when taking a persons pulse.

Radial arteries

142

These arteries, which originate at the right ventricle of the heart, carry oxygen depleted blood to the lungs, where the blood is oxygenated and returned to the heart for circulation throughout the body. The only artery that carry deoxygenated, or oxygen depleted, blood.

Pulmonary arteries

143

The smallest kind of artery. Carry blood from the arteries into the capillaries.

Arteriole

144

A tiny blood vessel that connects the arteriole to a venule. Has walls that allow for the exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste at the cellular level.

Capillaries

145

The smallest branch of the veins, is connected to the distal ends of capillaries.

Venule

146

Carries blood back to the heart. All except the pulmonary; Carry oxygen depleted blood.

Veins

147

Carries oxygen depleted blood back to the right atrium, where it begins circulation through the heart and lungs.

Venae cavae

148

Enters the top of the right atrium, carrying oxygen depleted blood from the upper body.

Superior vena cava

149

Enters the bottom of the right atrium, carrying oxygen depleted blood from the lower body

Inferior vena cava

150

Carry oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium. They are the only veins that carry oxygenated blood.

Pulmonary veins

151

Give the blood it's color, carry oxygen to the body cells, and carry carbon dioxide away from the cells.

Red blood cells

152

Blood cell that is part of the bodies immune system and help to defend against infection.

White blood cells

153

_______ and other clotting factors are essential to the formation of blood clots, necessary to stop bleeding.

Platelets

154

The liquid part of the blood, which carries blood cells and transports nutrients to all tissues. Also transports waste products to organs where they can be excreted from the body.

Plasma

155

When the left ventricle contracts, sending a wave of blood through the arteries, the____, or wave of propelled blood, can be felt at various points called_________.

Pulse / pulse points

156

A pulse felt on the left side of the chest over the left ventricle.

Apical

157

The force exerted by the blood on the interior walls of the arteries.

Blood pressure

158

Pressure exerted against the walls of the arteries when the left ventricle contracts.

Systolic blood pressure

159

Pressure exerted against the walls of the arteries when the left ventricle is at rest, or between contractions.

Diastolic blood pressure

160

The force exerted on the inside of the vessel walls as a result of blood pressure and volume.

Hydrostatic pressure

161

Swelling occurring in the tissues.

Edema

162

The delivery of oxygen, glucose, and other nutrients to the cells of all organ systems, and the elimination of carbon dioxide and other waste products, which results from the constant adequate circulation of blood through the capillaries.

Perfusion

163

Shock, or________, is the insufficient supply of oxygen and other nutrients to some of the body's cells and the inadequate elimination of carbon dioxide and other wastes that result from inadequate circulation of blood.

Hypoperfusion

164

The two most important gases the EMT is concerned with are :

Oxygen and carbon dioxide

165

Carbon dioxide is transported away from the cell and blown off by the lungs. This kind of metabolism is known as_________.

Aerobic metabolism. Aerobic means "with oxygen." Metabolism refers to chemical and physical changes that take place within the cell.

166

The process of metabolizing glucose without producing much energy is known as________.

Anaerobic metabolism. Anaerobic means "without oxygen."

167

Controls voluntary and involuntary activity of the human body. Nerves carry impulses from tissues and organs to the nerve centers, and from nerve centers to other tissues and organs.

Nervous system

168

Consists of the brain, which is located within the cranium, and the spinal cord, which is located within the spinal column.

Central nervous system

169

Three main subdivisions of the brain :

Cerebrum
Cerebellum
Brainstem

170

The outermost portion of the brain, occupies nearly all the cranial cavity. It controls specific body functions, such as sent station, thought, and associative memory. It also initiates and manages motions that are the conscious control of the individual

Cerebrum

171

Also called the "small brain," is located in the posterior and inferior aspect of the cranium. It coordinates muscle activity and maintains balance through impulses from the eyes and the ears. Though it cannot initiate a muscle contraction, they can hold muscles in a state of partial contraction.

The cerebellum

172

Contains the mesencephalon, the pond, and the medulla oblongata.

Brainstem

173

The Medela oblongata consists of three major control centers:

The respiratory center
The cardiac center
The vasomotor center

174

Controls the rate and depth of respiration

Respiratory center

175

Responsible for regulating the heart rate and force of contraction of the ventricles.

Cardiac center

176

Controls blood pressure, which produces dilation and constriction of the blood vessels.

Vasomotor center

177

Composed of the nerves located outside the spinal cord and brain.

Peripheral nervous system

178

_______nerves carries sensory information from the body to the spinal cord and brain.

Afferent

179

_______ nerves Carrie motor information from the brain and spinal cord to the body.

Efferent

180

Influences the activity of skeletal muscle and movements.

Voluntary nervous system

181

Influences the activities of smooth muscles and glands. Is partially independent of the rest of the nervous system.

Automatic nervous system

182

The nervous system activated when the body is challenged by stressors: trauma, blood loss, fright, and so on. It's actions are commonly known as the fight or flight response.

Sympathetic nervous system

183

Nervous system that returns body processes to normal or depresses body function.

Parasympathetic nervous system

184

Two components of the nervous system that controls the consciousness are:

Cerebral hemispheres and the reticular activating system (RAS)

185

Made up of ductless glands, the bodies regulators. Secretions from these glands are called hormones, chemical substances that have effects on the activity of certain organs.

Endocrine system

186

Located in the anterior neck, Regulates metabolism, growth and development, and the activity of the nervous system.

Thyroid gland

187

Behind the thyroid, produces A hormone necessary for the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus in the bones.

Parathyroid glands

188

Sits atop the kidneys, secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine, Postpone muscle fatigue, increase the storage of sugar, control kidney function, and regulate the metabolism of salt and water.

Adrenal glands

189

Produce the hormones that govern reproduction and sex characteristics.

The gonads (ovaries and testes)

190

In the pancreas, make insulin, which allows glucose to enter cells, and also produce glucagon, a hormone that raises the glucose level in the blood.

Islets of langerhans

191

At the base of the brain, is considered to be the "master gland." It regulates growth, the thyroid and parathyroid glands, the gonads, metabolism of fatty acids and some basic proteins, blood sugar reactions, and urinary excretion.

Pituitary gland

192

Its effects cause the vessels to constrict. The vessels of the skin are significantly affected. Blood is shunted to the core of the body. Causes the skin to become cool and pale. Also causes the sweat glands to release sweat.

Alpha 1

193

Effects are thought to regulate the release of alpha 1

Alpha 2

194

Effects cause smooth muscle to dilate, especially in the bronchioles and in some vessels.

Beta 2

195

Used to treat patients with severe allergic reactions to combat the problems found in the condition, primarily vasodilation and bronchoconstriction.

Epinephrine

196

The skin has three layers:

The epidermis
The dermis
Subcutaneous layer

197

Outer most layer of skin, is actually composer of four layers of cells.

Epidermis

198

Second layer of the skin, much thicker than the epidermis. Contains the vast network of blood vessels that supply the skin as well as the hair follicles, oil glands, sweat glands, and sensory nerves. Gives the skin it's elasticity and strength.

Dermis

199

Just below the dermis is a layer of fatty tissue called the _______.

Subcutaneous layer

200

The four accessory structures of the skin are:

Hair, nails, sweat glands, and oil glands.

201

Composed of alimentary tract (the passage through which food travels) and the accessory organs (organs that help prepare food for absorption and use by tissues of the body).

Digestive system

202

Large, hollow organ, that is the main organ of the digestive system.

The stomach

203

Flat, solid organ that lies just inferior and posterior to the stomach. It's secretes pancreatic juices that eight in the digestion of fats, starches, and proteins. The islets of Langerhans, produce the insulin that regulates the amount of sugar in the blood stream.

The pancreas

204

The largest solid organ in the abdomen, lies immediately beneath the diaphragm in the right upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity. Produces bile, which aids in the digestion of fat. It's Doris sugar until they are needed by the body. It also produces components necessary for immune function, blood clotting, and the production of plasma. Finally, the toxic substances produced by digestion are rendered harmless in the_______.

The liver

205

A solid organ located in the left upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity. It helps in the filtration of blood and, because it contains a dense network of blood vessels, serves as a reservoir of blood the body can use in emergencies such as hemorrhage. Although it lives among the digestive organs, the _______ has no digestive function.

The spleen

206

Hollow pouch. Part of the bile duct leading from the liver, acts as a reservoir for bile. When food enters the small intestine, contractions are stimulated that empty the ________ into the small intestine, where the bile aids in the digestion of fat.

Gallbladder

207

Receives food from the stomach and secretions from the pancreas and liver. Digestion of food continues, where food is completely broken down into a form that can be used by the body. Nutrients are absorbed through the walls and circulated through the bloodstream to all parts of the body.

The small intestine

208

Also called the colon. The parts of food that cannot be absorbed by the body are passed as waste products from the small intestine. As these waste products move through, their water is absorbed. What remains is the stool that is then passed through the rectum and the anus.

The large intestine

209

The ____ process includes chewing, swallowing, peristalsis (The rhythmic movement of matter through the digestive tract), and defecation (The elimination of digestive wastes).

Mechanical

210

The ____ process of digestion occurs when enzymes, or digestive juices, break foods down into simple components that can be absorbed and used by the body.

Chemical

211

filters and excretes waste from the blood.

Urinary system or renal system

212

effects all relate to the heart. they increase the heart rate, increase force of cardiac contraction, and speed up the electrical impulses traveling down the hearts conduction system

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Decks in EMT - Basic - Prehostpital Emergency Care 10th Edition Class (44):