Chapter 8 - Pathophysiology Flashcards Preview

EMT - Basic - Prehostpital Emergency Care 10th Edition > Chapter 8 - Pathophysiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Pathophysiology Deck (33):
1

process in which the body cells break down molecules of glucose to produce energy for the body

cellular metabolism

2

two types of cellular metabolism

aerobic and anaerobic

3

the breakdown of molecules that produce energy within the cells in the presence of oxygen

aerobic metabolism

4

the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid.

glycolysis

5

the breakdown of molecules that produce energy within the cell without the presence of oxygen

anaerobic metabolism

6

ATP

adenosine triphosphate

7

lactic acid

pyruvic

8

the delivery of glucose, oxygen, and other substances to the cells and the elimination of waste products from the cells

perfusion

9

vocal chord spasm where the vocal chords spasm and close together, which prevents air from passing through into the trachea

laryngeal spasm

10

a measure of the ability of the chest wall and lungs to stretch, distend, and expand

compliance

11

The amount of air moved in and out of the alveoli in one minute

Alveolar ventilation

12

cellular hypoxia can occur from:

inadequate tidal volume
ventilatory rate that is too fast
ventilatory rate that is too slow

13

specialized receptors that monitor the pH (hydrogen ions), CO2 and O2 levels in the arterial blood

chemoreceptors

14

there are two groups of chemoreceptors

central and peripheral

15

these receptors are most sensitive to carbon dioxide and changes in the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid

central chemoreceptors

16

the molecule of carbonic acid consists of:

carbon
oxygen
hydrogen atoms from CO2 and H2O that combined create carbonic acid

17

these receptors are somewhat sensitive to CO2 and pH but are most sensitive to the level of oxygen in the arterial blood.

peripheral chemoreceptors

18

hypoxic drive

rate and depth of breathing are regulated by the amount of CO2 in the blood
hypoxia becomes the stimulus for ventilation in place of hypercarbia

19

COPD

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
(retain CO2 in aretrial blood as a result of poor gas exchange)

20

irritant receptors

found in the airways and are sensitive to irritating gases, aerosols and particles. Irritant receptors will stimulate a cough, bronchoconstriction, and an increased ventilatory rate

21

stretch receptors

found in the smooth muscle of airways and measure the size and volume of the lungs. these receptors stimulate a decrease in the rate and volume of ventilation when stretched by high tidal volumes to protect against overinflation.

22

j-receptors

found in the capillaries surrounding the alveoli and are sensitive to increases in pressure in the capillary. when activated, they stimulate rapid shallow ventilation

23

Hypoxemia

Reduced concentrations of oxygen in the blood

24

Protein molecule that has four iron sites for oxygen to bind to

Hemoglobin

25

Hemoglobin with an oxygen molecule bound to it is referred to as:

Oxyhemoglobin

26

Hemoglobin that has no oxygen attached is referred to as:

Deoxyhemoglobin

27

The amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle in 1 minute

Cardiac output

28

Defined as the volume of blood ejected by the left ventricle with each contraction

Stroke volume

29

The pressure generated in the left ventricle at the end of the diastole

Preload

30

The resistance in the aorta that must be overcome by contraction of the left ventricle to eject the blood

Afterload

31

Diastolic blood pressure

The pressure inside the arteries and the aortic root immediately prior to contraction of the left ventricle

32

The difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure

Pulse pressure

33

The flow of blood through the smallest blood vessels--the arterioles, capillaries, and venules

Microcirculation

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