Flashcards in Chapter 29 - Burns Deck (22):
tough leathery burned skin - dead soft tissue formed in the full-thickness burn injury
burn injuries involving the skin are classified as superficial (_______ degree) partial-thickness (_____ degree) or full thickness (______ degree)
burn that only involves the epidermis. usually caused by a flash (a sudden occurence of heat or flame lasting only a few seconds), hot liquid or the sun
burn that involves not only the epidermis but also portions of the dermis. occur from contact with fire (flame or flash), hot liquids or objects, chemical substances, or the sun.
thin-walled blisters result from superficial dermal layer changes
skin is pink and moist (moisture is caused by small leaks in the capillary beds caused by the burn.)
skin is soft and tender to touch. (skin resiliency and hydration are normally preserved, but the skin will be more tender to the touch
superficial partial-thickness burns
thick-walled blisters often rupture. (the more severe nature of the blisters occurs because the dermis is injured at a greater depth, and they tend to rupture with any body motion or accidental friction because of their large size
skin is red and blanched white. (deeper levels of the epidermis and dermis are injured.)
the pt can still feel pressure at the site (pain receptors in the dermis may now be damaged and less responsive in some situations, but pressure receptors are found deeper in the dermis and may still be intact.)
there is poor cap refill to the burn site. (increased edema starts to compromise cap beds in the vicinity of the burn.
deep partial-thickness burns
burn that involves all three layers of the skin. results from contact with extreme heat sources such as hot liquids or solids, flame, chemicals, or electricity.
the most important factors to consider in determining burn severity are:
depth of burn
location of the burn
preexisting med condition
% of body surface area involved
a standardized way to quickly determine the amount of skin surface, or the body surface area percentage of a burn
the rule of nines
the concept that the area of a pts palm is equal to about 1% of his body surface area; a way to quickly identify the amount of skin or body surface area that has been burned.
rule of ones
5 major types of burns
burn associated with heat applied to the body
burn associated with high temp air or steam that is inhaled and causes damage to the mucosa of the upper airway.
burns produced by acids, alkalis, and other heat-generating chemicals.
burn that results from resistance to electrical current flow in the body. the burns are primarily internal
burn that occurs from the absorption of radiation into the body
burns may be caused by a variety of mechanisms:
pink or red dry skin
pain and tenderness to touch
white to cherry red skin
moist and mottled skin
blistering and intense pain
dry, hard, tough, and leathery skin that may appear white and waxy to dark brown or black and charred (eschar)
inability to feel pain because of damaged nerve endings
pain on peripheral edges of burns
singed nasal hairs
burned specks of carbon in the sputum
a sooty or smoky smell on breath
presence of actual burns of the oral mucosa