Chapter 24 - Enviromental Emergencies Flashcards Preview

EMT - Basic - Prehostpital Emergency Care 10th Edition > Chapter 24 - Enviromental Emergencies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 24 - Enviromental Emergencies Deck (46):
1

body temp is monitored and controlled primarily by the ___ in the brain

hypothalamus

2

a sensory receptor that is stimulated by temp

thermoreceptor

3

the transfer of heat and cold

thermal gradient

4

when hair on the skins surface erects

piloerection

5

there are three organ systems primarily responsible for cooling the body and reducing the body core temp:

the skin
cardiovascular system
resp. system

6

when the body loses more heat than it gains or produces, the result is called ______.

hypothermia

7

heat loss occurs through five mechanisms:

radiation
convection
conduction
evaporation
respiration

8

transfer of heat from the surface of one object to the surface of another without physical contact between the objects

radiation

9

loss of body heat to the atmosphere when air passes over the body.

convection

10

transfer of heat through direct physical touch with nearby objects

conduction

11

conversion of a liquid or solid into a gas; is a means by which the body is cooled

evaporation

12

the exchange of gases between an organism and its environment; the exchange of oxygen and CO2 that takes place during inhalation and exhalation

respiration

13

the increase in rate of cooling in the presence of water or by wet clothing

wind chill

14

when the amount of heat the body produces or gains exceeds the amount the body loses through the processes just described, the result is called ______.

hyperthermia

15

an overall reduction in body temperature, affecting the entire body; also called hypothermia AKA_____.

generalized cold emergency
generalized hypothermia

16

coma occurs when the bodys core temp reaches approximately ____degrees F

79

17

risk factors for generalized hypothermia include:

ambient temp., wind chill, and moisture
age
medical conditions
alcohol, drugs, and poisons
duration of exposure
clothing
activity level

18

occurs as a result of the lowering of the body temp from immersion in cool or cold water

immersion hypothermia

19

hypothermia precipitated by cold environments such as with persons who live on the streets in cold weather or whose indoor environment is too cool.

urban hypothermia

20

external urban hypothermia

pt who do not have access wot warm environments during cold months

21

internal urban hypothermia

pt who are subjected to colder temps in winter months when they attempt to minimize heating bills to save money.

22

a life-threatening late complication of hypothyroidism that may be precipitated by exposure to cold temps as well as to illness, infection, trauma, or certain drugs

myxedema coma

23

damage to tissues in a specific part of the body resulting from exposure to cold. require much colder temps than are needed to produce generalized hypothermia

local cold injury - frost bite

24

S/S - stages of generalized hypothermia

decreased mental status
decreased motor and sensory function
changing vital signs

25

mild hypothermia core temp range

95 - 91.4 F

26

moderate hypothermia core temp range

89.6 - 85.2 F

27

severe hypothermia core temp range

82.4 - 71.6 F

28

profound hypothermia core temp range

68 - 48.2 F

29

the basic principles of emergency care for generalized hypothermia are:

preventing further heat loss
rewarming ASAP
staying alert for complications

30

technique of aggressively applying external sources of heat to a Pt to rewarm his body

active rewarming

31

the use of the pt's own heat production and conservation mechanisms to rewarm him, for example, simply placing the pt in a warm environment and covering him with blankets

passive rewarming

32

S/S:
blanching of the skin (palp - normal color does not return)
loss of feeling and sensation in injured area
continued softness of the skin in injured area/and tissue beneath it
tingling sensation during any rewarming

superficial local cold injury

33

S/S:
white, waxy skin
a firm-to-frozen feeling when skin is palp-ed
swelling
blisters
partial/whole thawing - skin appears flushed with areas of purple and blanching or the skin appears mottled and cyanotic

deep local cold injury

34

the least serious form of heat-related injury is muscle spasms, or cramps, that are thought by some researchers to result from the body losing too much salt during profuse sweating.

heat cramps

35

occurs when the bodys cooling mechanisms have been expended, and the central nervous system and other systems are starting to show the consequences of this depletion.

heat exhaustion

36

occurs when the bodys heat-regulating mechanisms break down and become unable to cool the body sufficiently.

heat stroke

37

occurs typically to elderly patients with sedentary lifestyles, pt's who are chronically ill or are on medications inhibiting the temp-sensing ability of the body or patients who live in regions that rarely experience heat waves

nonexertional heat stroke

38

occurs to younger individuals who are engaged in strenuous physical exertion in a very hot environment for prolonged periods.

exertional heat stroke

39

factors that can predispose an individual to heat related injuries include the following:

climate
exercise and strenuous activity
age
preexisting illness
certain drugs and medications
lack of acclimation

40

S/S
elevated core temp
muscle cramps
weakness or exhaustion
dizziness or faintness
rapid pulse - at first
deep, rapid breathing - at first
H/A
seizures
loss of app.
N/V
AMS - unresponsive

hyperthermia

41

lightning bolt makes direct contact with the pt

direct strike

42

lightning strikes an object the pt is in contact with

contact strike

43

lightning strikes an object and jumps to a nearby person

splash or side flash strike

44

lightning current energizes the ground

ground current or step voltage strike

45

S/S:
AMS
retrograde amnesia - can't remember events before accident
anterograde amnesia - cant remember events after
weakness
pain, tingling, and numbness
pale, cool, clammy
temporary paralysis
dizziness
loss of pupillary function
seizures
vertigo

lightning strike

46

S/S:
general ill feeling
loss of appetite
H/A
disturbance in sleep
resp distress upon exertion

altitude illness

Decks in EMT - Basic - Prehostpital Emergency Care 10th Edition Class (44):