Flashcards in Chapter 24 - Enviromental Emergencies Deck (46):
body temp is monitored and controlled primarily by the ___ in the brain
a sensory receptor that is stimulated by temp
the transfer of heat and cold
when hair on the skins surface erects
there are three organ systems primarily responsible for cooling the body and reducing the body core temp:
when the body loses more heat than it gains or produces, the result is called ______.
heat loss occurs through five mechanisms:
transfer of heat from the surface of one object to the surface of another without physical contact between the objects
loss of body heat to the atmosphere when air passes over the body.
transfer of heat through direct physical touch with nearby objects
conversion of a liquid or solid into a gas; is a means by which the body is cooled
the exchange of gases between an organism and its environment; the exchange of oxygen and CO2 that takes place during inhalation and exhalation
the increase in rate of cooling in the presence of water or by wet clothing
when the amount of heat the body produces or gains exceeds the amount the body loses through the processes just described, the result is called ______.
an overall reduction in body temperature, affecting the entire body; also called hypothermia AKA_____.
generalized cold emergency
coma occurs when the bodys core temp reaches approximately ____degrees F
risk factors for generalized hypothermia include:
ambient temp., wind chill, and moisture
alcohol, drugs, and poisons
duration of exposure
occurs as a result of the lowering of the body temp from immersion in cool or cold water
hypothermia precipitated by cold environments such as with persons who live on the streets in cold weather or whose indoor environment is too cool.
external urban hypothermia
pt who do not have access wot warm environments during cold months
internal urban hypothermia
pt who are subjected to colder temps in winter months when they attempt to minimize heating bills to save money.
a life-threatening late complication of hypothyroidism that may be precipitated by exposure to cold temps as well as to illness, infection, trauma, or certain drugs
damage to tissues in a specific part of the body resulting from exposure to cold. require much colder temps than are needed to produce generalized hypothermia
local cold injury - frost bite
S/S - stages of generalized hypothermia
decreased mental status
decreased motor and sensory function
changing vital signs
mild hypothermia core temp range
95 - 91.4 F
moderate hypothermia core temp range
89.6 - 85.2 F
severe hypothermia core temp range
82.4 - 71.6 F
profound hypothermia core temp range
68 - 48.2 F
the basic principles of emergency care for generalized hypothermia are:
preventing further heat loss
staying alert for complications
technique of aggressively applying external sources of heat to a Pt to rewarm his body
the use of the pt's own heat production and conservation mechanisms to rewarm him, for example, simply placing the pt in a warm environment and covering him with blankets
blanching of the skin (palp - normal color does not return)
loss of feeling and sensation in injured area
continued softness of the skin in injured area/and tissue beneath it
tingling sensation during any rewarming
superficial local cold injury
white, waxy skin
a firm-to-frozen feeling when skin is palp-ed
partial/whole thawing - skin appears flushed with areas of purple and blanching or the skin appears mottled and cyanotic
deep local cold injury
the least serious form of heat-related injury is muscle spasms, or cramps, that are thought by some researchers to result from the body losing too much salt during profuse sweating.
occurs when the bodys cooling mechanisms have been expended, and the central nervous system and other systems are starting to show the consequences of this depletion.
occurs when the bodys heat-regulating mechanisms break down and become unable to cool the body sufficiently.
occurs typically to elderly patients with sedentary lifestyles, pt's who are chronically ill or are on medications inhibiting the temp-sensing ability of the body or patients who live in regions that rarely experience heat waves
nonexertional heat stroke
occurs to younger individuals who are engaged in strenuous physical exertion in a very hot environment for prolonged periods.
exertional heat stroke
factors that can predispose an individual to heat related injuries include the following:
exercise and strenuous activity
certain drugs and medications
lack of acclimation
elevated core temp
weakness or exhaustion
dizziness or faintness
rapid pulse - at first
deep, rapid breathing - at first
loss of app.
AMS - unresponsive
lightning bolt makes direct contact with the pt
lightning strikes an object the pt is in contact with
lightning strikes an object and jumps to a nearby person
splash or side flash strike
lightning current energizes the ground
ground current or step voltage strike
retrograde amnesia - can't remember events before accident
anterograde amnesia - cant remember events after
pain, tingling, and numbness
pale, cool, clammy
loss of pupillary function