Chapter 31 - Head Trauma Flashcards Preview

EMT - Basic - Prehostpital Emergency Care 10th Edition > Chapter 31 - Head Trauma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 31 - Head Trauma Deck (23):
1

the central nervous system is made up of:
1
2

the brain
the spinal cord

2

plates of large, flat bones that are fused together to form a helmetlike covering is called the ________.

cranial skull

3

the floor of the skull, made up for many seperate pieces of bone and is the weakest part of the skull.

basilar skull

4

within the skull, the brain is cushioned in a dense, serous substance called _________. produced by the brain, this fluid protects the brain and spinal cord against impact.

cerebrospinal fluid CSF

5

layers of tissue protecting the brain. they include the duramater, the arachnoid, and the pia matter.

meninges

6

outermost layer of tissue that encloses the brain and is composed of a double layer of tough, fibrous tissue.

dura mater ("hard mother")

7

layer of tissue that is in contact with the brain.

pia mater ("soft mother")

8

bleeding that occurs between the dura mater and the skull is called ______ and usually involves the brains outermost arteries.

epidural

9

the largest part of the brain, comprises three-fourths of the brains volume. responsible for most conscious and sensory functions, the emotions, and personality.

cerebrum

10

part of the brain that controls equilibrium and coordinates muscle activity.

cerebellum

11

the most primitive and best protected part of the brain. controls most automatic functions of the body, including cardiac, respiratory, vasomotor (blood pressure), and other functions vital to life

brainstem

12

injuries to the brain that result from shearing, tearing, and stretching of nerve fibers is called a _______ (DAI)

diffuse axonal injury

13

causes some disturbance in brain function ranging from momentary confusion to complete loss of responsiveness, and it usually causes h/a.

concussion

14

s/s:
momentary confusion
confusion that lasts several minutes
inability to recall the incident and, sometimes, the period just before it and right after it
repeated questioning about what happened
mild to moderate irritability or resistance to treatment
combativeness
inability to answer questions or obey commands appropriately
n/v
restlessness

concussion

15

s/s:
decreasing mental status or unresponsiveness
paralysis
unequal pupils
vomiting
alteration of vital signs
profound personality changes

brain contusion

16

a collection of blood between the dura mater and the arachnoid layer of the brain.

subdural hematoma

17

s/s:
weakness or paralysis to one side of the body
deterioration in level of responsiveness
vomiting
dilation of one pupil
abnormal resp or apnea
possible increasing systolic bp
decreasing pulse rate
h/a
seizures
confusion
personality changes

subdural hematoma

18

bleeding between the dura mater and the skull

epidural hematoma

19

s/s
loss of responsiveness followed by return and the rapid decline
decreasing mental status
severe headache
fixed dilated pupil
seizures
increasing systolic bp
decreasing hr
vomiting
apnea or abnormal breathing
systolic hypertension and bradycardia
posturing

epidural hematoma

20

s/s
dilated or sluggish pupil on one side
weakness or paralysis
sever alteration in consciousness
abnormal posturing
abnormal ventilation pattern
crushing reflex ( increased systolic and decreased HR)

brain herniation

21

same or similar reaction of the unstimulated pupil when the other pupil is stimulated, as when a light is shined into one pupil and both pupils contract

consensual reflex

22

a protective reflex by the body to maintain perfusion of the brain in a head-injured pt with increased intracranial pressure. the systolic BP increases, HR decreases, and the resp pattern changes. this syndrome indicates severe head injury.

cushing reflex

23

s/s
AMS
decreasing mental status
irregular breathing patteren
cushing reflex
obvious signs of injury
visible damage to skull
pain, tenderness, or swelling at site of injury
blood CSF
battle sign
absent motor function
n/a
unequal pupil size with AMS
diplopia - double vision
possible seizures
nonpurposeful response to painful stimuli
retrograde amnesia
antegrade amnesia

head injury

Decks in EMT - Basic - Prehostpital Emergency Care 10th Edition Class (44):