Chapter 25 - Submersion Incidents: Drowning and Diving Emergencies Flashcards Preview

EMT - Basic - Prehostpital Emergency Care 10th Edition > Chapter 25 - Submersion Incidents: Drowning and Diving Emergencies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 25 - Submersion Incidents: Drowning and Diving Emergencies Deck (17):
1

an incident in which someone is submerged or immersed in a liquid that prevents the person from breathing air and that results in a primary respiratory impairment, whether the person lives or dies after this process

drowning

2

the best chance for survival (drowning) is in a pt who has two or fewer of these characteristics. if three or more are present the chance of survival is only 5% ORLOWSKI predictors of poor survival are:
1
2
3
4
5

pt 3y/o or older
pt submerged > 5 min
resuscitation did not begin for more than 10min after rescue
pt is comatose on delivery to ED
pt arterial blood is very acidic (pH

3

a substance responsible for maintaining surface tension in the alveoli to keep them from collapsing

surfactant

4

never go out into the water to attempt a rescue unless you meet all of the following criteria:
1
2
3
4

good swimmer
specially trained in water rescue
wearing PFD
accompanied by other rescuers

5

the body's natural response to submersion in cold water in which breathing is inhibited, the heart rate decreases, and blood vessels constrict in order to maintain cerebral and cardiac blood flow

mammalian diving reflex

6

S/S
airway obstruction
absent or inadequate breathing
pulselessness (cardiac arrest)
spinal injury or head injury
musculoskeletal injuries
external or internal bleeding
shock
hypothermia
alcohol or drug abuse
drowning or submersion

water-related emergency Pt

7

condition in which the stomach fills with water, enlarging the abdomen to the point that it interferes with the ability to inflate the lungs can also be caused by air that is forced into the stomach during artificial ventilation

gastric distention

8

a medical condition that results from pressure changes that occur when a person descends in water or ascends in altitude

dysbarism

9

the concept that the volume of a gas is inversely proportionate to the pressure

boyles law

10

rupture of the alveoli and other lung structures

barotrauma

11

occurs as the result of the bubbles formed from the expansion of nitrogen in the blood and tissues as described in the henry law

decompression sickness (DCS)

12

bubbles in blood vessels have two primary effects on the body:

act as emboli
compress and stretch vessels and nerves

may also cause coagulation to occur

13

S/S:
pain
pruritus (itching) and burning feeling of skin
skin rash
skin has orange peel appearance
painless pitting edema

type I decompression sickness

14

S/S
fatigue
s/s of shock
pupillary changes
pallor to the tongue
bloody sputum
nasal flaring, retraction of chest, accessory muscle use
tachypnea
crackles (rales)
vomiting
urinary bladder distention
seizure
uncoordinated movement, weakness, motor/sensory deficits
joint pain, decreased ROM
edema
cyanosis, apllor, itching, mottling, marbling

type II decompression sickness

15

blocking of blood vessels by an air bubble or clusters of air bubbles

arterial gas embolism (AGE)

16

S/S
itchy, blotchy, mottled skin
dyspnea
dizziness
chest pain
severe, deep aching pain in muscle, joints, tendons
blurred or distorted vision
partial deafness
N/V
numbness or paralysis
weakness or numbness on one side of the body
staggering gate or lack of coordination
frothy blood in the nose and mouth
swelling and crepitus in the neck
loss or distortion of memory
coma
cardiac or resp arrest
behavioral changes (sometimes the only sign)

arterial gas embolism

17

S/S
mild to severe pain in the affected area
clear or bloody discharge from the nose or ears
extreme dizziness
nausea
disorientation

barotrauma

Decks in EMT - Basic - Prehostpital Emergency Care 10th Edition Class (44):