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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Notes Deck (43):
1

hysteria

A mental disorder marked by

the conversion of repressed psychical elements into

somatic symptoms such as impotency, paralysis, or

blindness, when no physiological bases for these

symptoms exist.

2

repression

forcing of unwanted anxiety ridden experiences into the unconscious as a defence against the pain of that anxiety

3

Phylogenetic endowment

similar to Jung's collective unconscious in that it is inherited baggage, but for Freud it was a last resort when he couldn't find reasons for people's problems in their own lives Later uses it to explain oedipus complex and castration anxiety

4

Two sub-systems of superego

Conscience: based on punishment and tells us what we should not do / Guilt Ego-ideal: based on experiences of reward and tells us what we should do / inferiority

5

Forces that motivate people

Freud's concept of the sexual and aggressive instincts Drive/Impulse sex (eros) and aggression (thanatos) Demands of the real world prevent a direct, covert, unopposed fulfillment of of either sexual or aggressive impulses, creating anxiety relegated to the unconscious

6

Libido is

the psychic energy of Eros

7

Every drive is characterized by an

Impetus

8

Source is

the region of the body in a state of excitation or tension

9

Aim is

to seek pleasure by removing excitation or reducing the tension

10

Object is

the person or thing that serves as the means through which the aim is satisfied can easily be displaced or substituted: the nipple becomes the thumb

11

Primary narcissism is

when the infants are self-centered with libido almost exclusively invested on their own ego

12

secondary narcissism

during adolescence there is a phase

13

Sadism is

the need for sexual pleasure by inflicting pain or humiliation on another person

14

Masochism is

when you inflict it on yourself, less dependent on others to get this fix

15

Aggression or Destructive drive main concern is

to return the organism to an inorganic state - ultimately death, so self-destruction Can take many forms such as Teasing, gossip, sarcasm, humiliation, humor, enjoyment of other people's suffering

16

Neurotic Anxiety

apprehension about unknown danger

17

Moral Anxiety

Originates conflict between ego and superego Realistic and superego unrealistic demands

18

realistic Anxiety

unpleasant non-specific feeling involving possible danger Driving in heavy/fast moving traffic, but the danger is non-specific

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Repression

forces threatening feelings into the unconscious

20

Reaction formation

A defense mechanism in which a

person represses one impulse and adopts the exact

opposite form of behavior, which ordinarily is

exaggerated and ostentatious.

21

Displacement

kick the dog

22

Fixation

smoke, or eat too much then you are fixating orally and neatness and orderliness is an anal fixation

 

the permanent attachment of the libido onto an earlier,

more primitive stage of development

23

Regression

Remain in fetal position, return to mom, stay in bed when anxiety hits

24

Projection

seeing in others unacceptable feelings or tendencies that actually reside in one's own unconscious

25

Introjection

incorporate positive qualities of another person on to themselves

26

sublimation

elevation of the sexual instincts aim to a higher level

27

8 Defence mechanisms

repression

reaction

formation

displacement

fixation

regression

projection

introjection

sublimation

28

psycho sexual phases

oral

anal

phallic

latency

genital

29

oral

0 - 2 Nipple oriented At first no pob but then with scheduled and less frequent feedings and eventually weening there comes frustration Second phase is the oral sadistic phase, when they teeth They respond by biting, cooing, closing their mouth and smiling Thumb sucking is a defense mechanism against anxiety Eventually, candy, gum, biting pencils, making biting remarks and being sarcastic

30

anal

2 - 3 Early and late phases Receive satisfaction by behaving aggressively for frustrating them with toilet training, before that they took so much pleasure in crapping Then as they get used to it they take an interest in their crap that again is based on the joy of crapping If kids are shamed around this they become retentive and if they are praised then they become well adjusted adults Girls carry over penis envy in this stage Penis, baby and feces, because of their same shape are represented similarly in dreams

31

phallic

3 - 4 Genital becomes the leading erogenous zone Dichotomy between male and female He believed that sex differences accounted for many psychological differences Suppression of masturbation happens around this stage because they want to and parents inhibit them so they develop complexes

32

Oedipus (female)

Experience penis envy when they realize that men have something extra Carried over into the wish to have a baby and a boy in particular Holds mom responsible for bringing her into the world without a penis Results in 3 reactions: Intense hostility towards mom Cling to masculinity hoping to have a penis Develop naturally

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Latency Period

Post 5 years old until puberty dormant psychosexual development Reinforced through suppression by teachers and parents, internal feelings of shame and guilt

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Genital Period

Associated with puberty, not to be confused with phallic phase Direct towards another person Reproduction possible Males see the vagina as something sought after as opposed to a source of trauma Genitals are the supreme erogenous zone What differentiates from the phallic stage: Elevated status of vagina Reproductive capacity of sexual drive Direct libido outward instead of to self

35

Maturity

A stage that people pass through after earlier stages in an ideal manner Most don't get there cuz too many opportunities for pathological disorders and neurotic predispositions Characterized mostly by sublimation of libido Searching for tender and sensual love Come through childhood in control of their psychic energy and with their ego functioning in the center of an ever-expanding world of consciousness

36

Manifest content is

surface meaning

37

Latent content

is the unconscious material

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All dreams are

wish-fulfillment mostly expressed in latent content Though some trauma sufferers follow the principle of repetition compulsion (PTSD)

39

Parapraxes

freudian slips - unconscious slips

40

Oedipus complex (male)

During the phallic phase, boys and girls begin to have differing psychosexual development. At this time, boys and girls experience the Oedipus complex in which they have sexual feelings for one parent and hostile feelings for the other. The male castration complex, which takes the form of castration anxiety, breaks up the male Oedipus complex and results in a well-formed male superego.

41

Compare Freud's early therapeutic technique with his later approach and explain how his shift in techniques may have permanently altered the history of psychoanalysis

- During the 1890s, Freud used an aggressive therapeutic technique in which he strongly suggested to patients that they had been sexually seduced as children. - Freud adopted a much more passive type of psychotherapy, one that relied heavily on free association, dream interpretation, and transference - later goal of Freud's later psychotherapy was to uncover repressed memories

42

Discuss recent research related to Freud's concept of dreams

In line with wish fulfillment - students are asked to not think about something that they want and then they dream about it

43

Describe how Freud's childhood experiences may have influenced his theory of personality

his mother's favorite wished his younger brother would die, and he did at 6 months resulting in guilt that was later vanquished when he learned that a lot of people experience that wish as a jew, thought that his opportunities in physiology would be limited so he moved into psychiatry and nervous diseases