Flashcards in Chapter 1 MC Deck (20):
The word personality comes from "persona," which originally meant
a. theatrical mask.
c. the animal side of human nature.
d. that which one truly is.
Psychologists are most likely to agree that
a. three personality traits can explain all human behavior.
b. personality refers mostly to surface appearance.
c. there is a single best definition of personality.
d. none of the above.
A pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to human behavior is called
b. a general trait.
c. a specific trait.
d. a genetic predisposition.
Which term should be most closely associated with the word theory?
A theory can be defined as
a. an unverified hypothesis.
b. an educated guess.
c. a group of philosophical speculations concerning the nature of reality.
d. a set of related assumptions that generate testable hypotheses.
Which statement best reflects the relationship between theory and hypothesis?
a. Theories are narrower than hypotheses.
b. A single theory may generate several hypotheses.
c. Theories flow logically from specific hypotheses.
d. Theories can be proven; hypotheses cannot
A hypothesis is best defined as
a. a classification system.
b. armchair speculation.
c. an unproved theory.
d. an educated guess or prediction.
a. systems for classifying data.
b. principles of learning that make up a theory.
c. guidelines for living a principled life.
d. legal entities for raising revenue.
What is the relationship among theory, hypothesis, and observation?
a. Observations are practical tools; theories and hypotheses are impractical.
b. Theories generate hypotheses that lead to observations that may alter the original theory.
c. Hypotheses generate theories, which then result in observations.
d. Observations generate hypotheses, which in turn generate theories.
The ultimate value of a theory is its
A theory should be open to disconfirmation. This refers to the theory's ability to
a. be proven.
b. generate research.
c. provide guidelines for the practitioner.
d. be falsified.
A related set of if-then assumptions would constitute a
d. scientific experiment.
The subdiscipline of psychology that looks at the personal traits of scientists is called
a. psychology of science.
b. the science of psychology.
c. science in autobiographical study.
d. psychology in autobiographical study
Although scientists are influenced by their personal characteristics, the usefulness of their work is
a. the clarity of their observations.
b. the reliability of their measuring instruments.
c. judged by their scientific product.
d. judged by their ability to create a workable taxonomy.
A useful theory should
b. serve as a guide to action.
c. organize observations.
d. generate research.
e. all of the above.
An internally consistent theory
a. generates a single hypothesis.
b. can be directly verified.
c. can explain nearly all empirical observations.
d. includes operational definitions of its terms.
A theory that is as simple as possible is
a. internally consistent.
d. an operational theory.
An explanation of behavior in terms of future goals or purposes is
a. a parsimonious theory.
b. also hypothetical.
A test that yields consistent results is said to be
b. a norm-referenced test.