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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Notes Deck (20):
1

6 Criteria of a scientific theory

1) generate research
2) falsifiable
3) organize and explain knowledge
4) does it suggest practical solutions to everyday problems
5) is it internally consistent
6) is it simple and parsimonious

2

6 perspectives to discuss human nature

1) determinism vs free choice
2) pessimism vs optimism
3) causality vs teleology
4) conscious vs unconscious
5) biological vs social factors
6) uniqueness vs similarities in people

3

personality originates from the word

persona: a theatrical mask worn by Roman actors in Greek dramas

4

personality definition

a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to human behavior

5

Traits

contribute to individual differences in behaviour, consistency of behaviour over time, and stability of of behaviour across situations

6

Characteristics

temperament, physique, intelligence

7

theory is

a set of RELATED ASSUMPTIONS that allow scientists to use logical deductive reasoning to formulate testable hypothesis

is MORE GENERAL than a hypothesis and may generate multiple hypotheses, educated guesses. A theory is too general to lend itself to direct verification

8

flow from theory to hypothesis

(philosophy) general theory –> deductive reasoning –> particular hypothesis that can be tested

9

philosophy is

the love of wisdom -- is a broader term than theory

10

epistemology is

branch of philosophy

the nature of knowledge

Theory relates most closely to this branch of philosophy, because it is a tool used by scientists in their pursuit of knowledge

11

taxonomy is

a classification system, and classification is necessary to science. Taxonomies, however, do not generate hypotheses—a necessary criterion of a useful theory.

12

psychology of science studies the

personal traits of scientists to see what impact on the theory

13

reliability measures extent to which

the research yields consistent results

14

validity measures

what it's supposed to

15

construct validity measures

hypothetical construct (extraversion, intelligence, aggressiveness, emotional stability)

16

convergent construct validity is

when traits that are supposed to be grouped together appear in a correlational way (extravertedness with sociability)

17

discriminant construct validity

discriminates between 2 people - someone extraverted has high scores on sociability than someone who is introverted

18

predictive validity

test predicts future behavior

19

Hypothesis

- A good theory is capable of generating many hypotheses. A hypothesis is an educated guess or prediction specific enough for its validity to be tested through the use of the scientific method

- more specific than the theories that give them birth

20

Speculation

useful theory should be founded on both scientific evidence and controlled, imaginative speculation

Freud began to combine philosophical speculations with a primitive scientific method