Chapter 20 - Chemical and Solvent Toxicology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 20 - Chemical and Solvent Toxicology Deck (63):
0

All of the following are inducers of P450 2E1 except...

A. Acetone

B. Ethanol

C. Isoniazid

D. Phenobarbital

D. Phenobarbital

1

Which of the following can affect the toxicity of solvents?

A. Time of day

B. Diet

C. Physical activity

D. All of the above

D. All of the above

2

A metabolite of trichloroethylene that is also a metabolite of a marketed sedative for children is...

A. Trichloroethylene epoxide

B. Trichloroethanol

C. Trichloromethane

D. Dichlorethylene

B. Trichloroethanol

3

The strongest asso between high exposure to trichloroethylene and human cancer has been...

A. Malignant melanoma

B. Astrocytoma

C. Renal cell carcinoma

D. Osteosarcoma

C. Renal cell carcinoma

4

An unusual feature of methylene chloride metabolism is...

A. It is auto-inducing

B. A metabolite is carbon monoxide

C. There are no P450-mediated pathways

D. It is metabolized to hydrochloric acid, which causes metabolic acidosis

B. A metabolite is carbon monoxide

5

The strongest association between exposure to ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and human disease is...

A. Congestive heart failure

B. Infertility in men

C. Biliary stasis

D. Pulmonary fibrosis

B. Infertility in men

6

Methyl tert-butyl ether...

A. Was present in gasoline up to 15% by volume

B. Causes cancer in animals

C. Is present in ground water

D. All of the above

D. All of the above

7

Jet fuels...

A. Are predominantly ethers

B. Are highly toxic to the skin, lungs and immune system

C. Are highly renal toxic in humans

D. All of the above

B. Are highly toxic to the skin, lungs and immune system

8

All of the following are true of carbon disulfide except...

A. It is associated with cognitive impairment

B. It is a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease

C. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin levels are biomarkers of exposure

D. It is a product of disulfiram metabolism

C. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin levels are biomarkers of exposure

9

All of the following class generalizations for hydrocarbon toxicity are correct except...

A. Amines/amides-sensitizers

B. Aldehydes-irritants

C. Decreased lipophilicity-increased CNS depression

D. Unsaturated, short chain-animal carcinogens

C. Decreased lipophilicity-increased CNS depression

10

A unique challenge in evaluating solvent toxicology is that many solvents are...

A. Flammable

B. Mixtures

C. Expensive

D. Ubiquitous in the environment

B. Mixtures

11

All of the following are true in solvent abuse except...

A. The blood-brain barrier causes a significant delay between blood levels and brain levels

B. Almost 20% of eighth graders admit to abusing inhalants

C. There is a potential for dependence

D. Death can occur by cardiac arrhythmia

A. The blood-brain barrier causes a significant delay between blood levels and brain levels

12

All of the following statements are true of volatile organic compounds except...

A. VOCs entering the lung are absorbed into the arterial circulation

B. VOCs absorbed through the intestine mainly enter the portal circulation

C. Low doses of many VOCs are metabolized by cytochrome 2D6

D. The major routes of elimination of VOCs are metabolism and exhalation

C. Low doses of many VOCs are metabolized by cytochrome 2D6

13

Chronic isopropyl alcohol exposure can potentiate carbon tetrachloride hepatorenal toxicity by...

A. Additive direct toxic effects

B. Induction of metabolism

C. Increased absorption

D. Decreased first-pass effect

B. Induction of metabolism

14

True statements regarding gender differences in solvent disposition include all of the following except...

A. Males have more lean body mass

B. Females have smaller volumes of distribution for polar solvents

C. Females have higher activity of gastric alcohol dehydrogenase

D. There are no major differences in P450 metabolism between males and females

C. Females have higher activity of gastric alcohol dehydrogenase

15

Theories for alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity include all of the following except...

A. Release of endotoxin

B. Binding to the estrogen receptor

C. Malnutrition

D. Release of inflammatory mediators by Kupffer cells

B. Binding to the estrogen receptor

16

The site of toxicity for methanol appears to be...

A. Retinal P450 2E1

B. Retinal alcohol dehydrogenase

C. Retinal aldehyde dehydrogenase

D. Retinal cytochrome c oxidase

D. Retinal cytochrome c oxidase

17

The treatment for methanol toxicity can include...

A. Dialysis

B. Sodium bicarbonate

C. Methylpyrazole

D. All of the above

D. All of the above

18

Ethylene glycol causes...

A. Acute renal toxicity

B. Peripheral neuropathy

C. Hypercalcemia

D. All of the above

A. Acute renal toxicity

19

Propylene glycol...

A. Causes reproductive toxicity

B. is "generally recognized as safe"

C. Is metabolized to oxalic acid

D. Has a major metabolite whose formation cannot be inhibited by ethanol

B. is "generally recognized as safe"

20

Metabolites of toluene include all of the following except...

A. Hippuric acid

B. Phenol

C. Benzoic acid

D. Benzyl alcohol

B. Phenol

21

The primary toxic target organ for toluene is...

A. Liver

B. Lung

C. CNS

D. Adrenal gland

C. CNS

22

Xylene is...

A. Present in gasoline

B. Primarily a CNS toxicant

C. Not genotoxic

D. All of the above

D. All of the above

23

Populations with a low level of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase would be expected to have...

A. Increased risk of alcoholism

B. Increased risk of cancer

C. Increased risk of offspring with fetal alcohol syndrome

D. None of the above

B. Increased risk of cancer

24

Styrene...

A. Is a solid at RT

B. Is chemically divinyl benzene

C. A definite human respiratory tract carcinogen

D. None of the above

D. None of the above

25

The highly toxic P450-mediated metabolite of carbon tetrachloride is...

A. Hydroxyl radical

B. Chlorine radical

C. Chloroform

D. Trichloromethyl radical

D. Trichloromethyl radical

26

The use of carbon tetrachloride has significantly declined because of all of the following issues except...

A. Flammability

B. Hepatorenal toxicity

C. Carcinogenicity

D. Ozone depletion

A. Flammability

27

The toxic metabolity of chloroform is thought to be...

A. Trichloromethyl radical

B. Phosgene

C. Hypochlorous acid

D. All of the above

B. Phosgene

28

All of the following are true of benzene metabolism except...

A. Mycloperoxidase may play a role in bone marrow toxicity

B. The formation of benzene epoxide is catalyzed by P450 2E1

C. A metabolite that appears in urine is t,t-muconic acid

D. Quinone oxioreductase is a liver enzyme that converts benzene to a mylotoxic metabolite

D. Quinone oxioreductase is a liver enzyme that converts benzene to a mylotoxic metabolite

29

Benzene exposure has been asso w/ an increased risk of...

A. Liver cancer

B. Renal cell carcinoma

C. Acute myelogenous leukemia

D. Lung cancer

C. Acute myelogenous leukemia

30

All of the following are true of the CNS pharmacology of solvent abuse except...

A. It may be similar to alcohol

B. It has the potential for tolerance

C. Naloxone will precipitate life-threatening withdrawal reactions

D. It may involve GABA, glycine, and NMDA receptors

C. Naloxone will precipitate life-threatening withdrawal reactions

31

Which of the following is false?

A. CYP2E1 activity decreases by 80% between the ages of 21 and 65

B. Polar solvents will reach higher levels in the elderly

C. Extracellular water is highest in newborns

D. CYP2E1 is low in fetal liver

A. CYP2E1 activity decreases by 80% between the ages of 21 and 65

32

All of the following are true except...

A. Exercise increases alveolar ventilation and cardiac output

B. pulmonary blood flow and pulmonary metabolism are rate-limiting for uptake of lipid soluble solvents

C. Exercise can increase uptake of both polar and lipid soluble solvents

D. Blood flow to liver and kidney increases with exercise

D. Blood flow to liver and kidney increases with exercise

33

All of the following are true of trichloroethylene except...

A. DCVC is a reactive metabolite mediated by GSH

B. It can stimulate the PPAR alpha receptor

C. It can stimulate the estrogen receptor

D. TCAA is a reactive metabolite mediated by CYP P450

C. It can stimulate the estrogen receptor

34

Which of the following is a cyclic ether?

A. Dioxane

B. dioxin

C. Styrene

D. A and B

D. A and B

35

All of the following are true of turpentine except...

A. It is asso w scleroderma

B. It is a mixture

C. In the same chemical class is d-limonene

D. It is asso w/ allergic contact dermatitis

A. It is asso w scleroderma

36

Dimethylformamide...

A. Is water insoluble

B. Can cause pancreatitis

C. Is a solid at room temperature

D. Is used by dry cleaners

B. Can cause pancreatitis

37

Evaporation rate...

A. Is inversely related to lipid solubility

B. Is directly related to boiling point

C. Is a number without units

D. Is another name for vapor pressure

C. Is a number without units

38

Percutaneous absorption of xylene and toluene vapors in humans...

A. Is usually insignificant

B. Can lead to metabolism in the stratum corneum and production of metabolites that cause squamous cell carcinoma

C. Accounts for about 10% of total body absorption

D. Can be equal to pulmonary absorption in a person who is sweating

A. Is usually insignificant

39

Angina pectoris and sudden cardiac death have occurred in...

A. Painters

B. Rayon workers

C. Miners

D. Dynamite workers

D. Dynamite workers

40

Nitrosamines are formed...

A. From a primary amine and a hydroxyl ion

B. From a secondary amine and a nitrite in an acid medium

C. From a tertiary amine and nitrite in an alkaline medium

D. From a secondary amine and nitrite in an alkali e medium

B. From a secondary amine and a nitrite in an acid mediume

41

All of the following are true of styrene except...

A. It is a flame retardant

B. It has an epoxide as a metabolite

C. It causes neuropsychological deficits in humans

D. Mandelic acid in urine is a marker of exposure in humans

A. It is a flame retardant

42

Vinyl chloride is associated with...

A. Proximal tubular necrosis

B. Thyroid dysfunction

C. Raynaud's phenomenon

D. Peripheral neuropathy

C. Raynaud's phenomenon

43

Phenol...

A. Is highly water-insoluble

B. Is well absorbed through the skin

C. Is asso w/ acute leukemia

D. Has a half-life of 5 days in humans

B. Is well absorbed through the skin

44

Hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia have occurred in humans after exposure to...

A. Hydrofluoric acid

B. Boric acid

C. Tannic acid

D. Bromine

A. Hydrofluoric acid

45

Hydrofluoric acid exposure has been asso w/

A. Osteosarcoma

B. Osteosclerosis

C. Hepatitis

D. Anemia

B. Osteosclerosis

46

Acrylamide exposure has been asso w all of the following except...

A. Peripheral neuropathy

B. Sweating

C. Ataxia

D. Hypertension

D. Hypertension

47

Urinary p-aminophenol is a biologic monitor for exposure to...

A. Benzene

B. Toluene

C. Aniline

D. Xylene

C. Aniline

48

All of the following are true of carbon disulfide exposure except...

A. Exposed workers are at an increased risk of cardiovascular death

B. Atypical Parkinson's disease has occurred

C. The eye and ear are target organs

D. Fifty percent is excreted unchanged by the kidney

D. Fifty percent is excreted unchanged by the kidney

49

There is debate as to whether or not low exposure to any solvent could produce...

A. Carcinogenicity

B. Liver disease

C. Renal disease

D. Neuropsychological dysfunction

D. Neuropsychological dysfunction

50

All of the following are true of volatile organic compounds VOCs except...

A. Contamination of drinking water is not a major concern

B. Atmospheric concentrations are usually low

C. VOCs in surface water rise to the surface or sink to the bottom

D. Winds can dilute and disperse solvent vapors to large distances

A. Contamination of drinking water is not a major concern

51

Hypokalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis are most commonly asso w/ ...

A. Methyl alcohol

B. octane

C. Toluene

D. N-hexane

C. Toluene

52

The most common cause of death in solvent abusers is...

A. Liver failure

B. Renal failure

C. Acute lung injury

D. Sudden cardiac death

D. Sudden cardiac death

53

Of the following, the solvent least likely to be abused is...

A. Ethylene glycol

B. Xylene

C. Toluene

D. Perchloroethylene

A. Ethylene glycol

54

Toluene...

A. Is ethylbenzene

B. Causes cholestasis

C. Is myelotoxic

D. None of the above

D. None of the above

55

Which of the following statements is false regarding cyclohexane?

A. It is used in the synthesis of nylon

B. It is the only cyclic alipathic hydrocarbon extensively used as an industrial solvent

C. It causes a peripheral neuropathy similar to n-hexane

D. It can cause neurobehavioral dysfunction

C. It causes a peripheral neuropathy similar to n-hexane

56

The risk of peripheral neuropathy is highest with...

A. Aromatic petroleum naptha

B. Petroleum ether

C. Mineral spirits

D. Kerosene

B. Petroleum ether

57

Hepatic angiosarcoma has been asso w/ all of the following exposures except...

A. Thorium dioxide

B. Napthalene

C. Vinyl chloride

D. Arsenic

B. Napthalene

58

The most frequently found VOC in finished drinking water supplies in the US is...

A. Chloroform

B. Carbontetrachloride

C. 1,3 butadiene

D. Methylene chloride

A. Chloroform

59

All of the following are true of organic solvents except...

A. Solvents are highly absorbed from the GI tract

B. Hydrophillic solvents absorbed through inhalation take longer to reach steady state than hydrophobic solvents do

C. Dermal absorption in rodents is less than in humans

D. Corn oil can delay the GI absorption of carbon tetrachloride in the rat

C. Dermal absorption in rodents is less than in humans

60

All of the following are possible mechanisms of wthanol carcinogenicity except...

A. Congeners can influence carcinogenicity

B. Immune function can be stimulated

C. Nutrients can be reduced

D. CYP2E1 induction

B. Immune function can be stimulated

61

Known human carcinogens present in gasoline are...

A. Benzene and 1,3 butadiene

B. hexane and pentane

C. Toluene and xylene

D. All of the above

A. Benzene and 1,3 butadiene

62

Carbon disulfide exposure...

A. May accelerate atherosclerosis

B. Can cause peripheral neuropathy

C. Has been asso w/ increased blood pressure in workers

D. All of the above

D. All of the above