Flashcards in Chapter 24: The Digestive System Deck (67)
Name organs in the digestive system.
List accessory structures of the digestive system.
1. Salivary glands
The active process that occurs when materials enter the digestive tract via the mouth is...
the lining of the digestive tract plays a defensive role by protecting surrounding tissues against...
1. corrosive effects of digestive acids and enzymes
2. mechanical stresses
3. pathogenic organisms swallowed with food
sympathetic stimulation of the muscularis externa promotes...
muscular inhibition and relaxation
the mucous-producing, unicellular glands found in the mucosal epithelium of the stomach and small and large intestine are..
mucous (goblet) cells
which of the layers of the digestive tube is most responsible for peristalsis along the esophagus?
the muscular layers involved with peristalsis are described as...
circular and longitudinal
swirling, mixing, and churning motions of the digestive tract provide...
mechanical processing after ingestion
powerful peristaltic contractions moving the contents of the colon toward the rectum are called...
accelerated secretions by the salivary glands, resulting in the production of watery saliva containing abundant enzymes, are promoted by...
the submandibular glands produce saliva, which is...
both mucus and serous
the three pairs of salivary glands that secret into the oral cavity are the...
parotid, sublingual, and submandibular
crushing, mashing, and grinding food are accomplished by the action of...
the three phases of deglutition are...
buccal, pharyngeal, and esophageal
on its way to the esophagus, food normally passes through the...
oropharynx and laryngopharynx
the pharyngeal muscles that push the food bolus toard the esophagus are the...
pharyngeal constrictor muscles
the esophageal glands that produce a mucous secretion that reduces friction between the bolus and the esophageal lining are located in the...
the primary function of the esophagus is to...
convey solid foods and liquids to the stomach
the inferior end of the esophagus normally remains in a state of active contraction that...
prevents backflow of materials from the stomach into the esophagus
the hormone gastrin...
increases the activity of parietal and chief cells
the release of chyme from the stomach into the duodenum is regulated by the...
what inhibits gastric contractions?
3. distention of duodenal stretch receptors
what is secreted by the stomach?
the three divisions of the small intestine are...
duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
the myenteric plexus of the intestinal tract is found...
between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers
an enzyme not found in pancreatic juice is...
what happens to salivary amylase after it is swallowed?
it is digested and absorbed in the small intestine
the three phases of gastric function are...
cephalic, gastric, and intestinal
bile is stored and modified in the...
the primary functions of the liver are...
1. metabolic regulation
2. hematological regulation
3. bile production
the hormone that promotes the emptying of the gallbladder and of pancreatic juice containing enzymes is...
undigested food residues are moved through the large intestine in the following sequence:
cecum, colon, and rectumn
the longitudinal ribbon of smooth muscle visible on the outer surfaces of the colon just beneath the serosa are the...
undigested food residues are moved through the colon in the following sequence:
ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid
material arriving from the ileum first enters an expanded pouch called the...
in addition to storage of fecal material and absorption of some vitamins, an important function of the large intestine is...
reabsorption of water
the vitamins liberated by bacterial action and absorbed in the large intestine are...
biotin, pantothenic acid, and vitamin K
the organic nutrients that provide energy for the human body are...
carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
the nutrients that can be absorbed without preliminary processing but may involve special transport mechanisms are...
water, electrolytes and vitamins
the enzyme lactase, which digest lactose to glucose and galactose, is synthesized by...
epithelial cells lining the small intestine
hydrochloric acid in the stomach functions primarily to...
facilitate protein digestion
a molecule absorbed into the lacteals of the lymphatic system within the walls of the small instestine is...
the intestinal epithelium absorbs monosaccharides by...
facilitated diffusion and cotransport mechanisms
when two fluids are seperated by a selectively permeable membrane, water tends to flow into the solution that has the...
higher concentration of solutes
in the elderly, the decline in olfactory and gustatory sensitivities with age can lead to...
dietary changes that effect the entire body
the system that interacts with the digestive tract to control hunger, satiation, and feeding behaviors is the...
the final enzymatic steps in the digestion of carbohydrates are accomplished by...
brush border enzymes of the microvilli
many visceral smooth muscle networks show rhythmic cycles of activity in the absence of neural stimulation due to the presence of...
pacesetter cells that spontaneously depolarize and trigger contraction of entire muscular sheets
a drop of pH below 4.5 in the duodenum stimulates the secretion of....
the stomach is divided into the following regions:
cardia, fundus, body, pylorus
the two factors that play an important part in controlling gastric emptying are...
stomach distention and gastrin release
the plicae of the intestinal mucosa, which bears the intestinal villi, are structural features that provide for...
increased total surface area for absorption
the enteroendocrine cells of the intestinal glands are responsible for producing the intestinal hormones...
cholecystokinin and secretin
most intestinal absorption occurs in the...
the primary functions of the intestinal juice are to...
1. moisten the chyme
2. neutralize acid
3. dissolve digestive enzymes and products of digestion
an immediate increase in the rates of glandular secretion and peristaltic activity along the entire small intestine is a result of the...
one of the primary effects of secretin is to can an...
increase in secretion of buffers by the pancreas
the prptide hormone that causes the release of insulin from the pancreatic islets is...
the large intestine can be divided into three major parts, the...
cecum, colon, and rectum
the muscular sphincter that guards the entrance between the ileum and cecum is the...
the contractions that force fecal material into the rectum and produce the urge to defecate are called _________ movements.
a large meal containing small amounts of protein, large amounts of carbohydrates, wine, and after-dinner coffee will leave your stomach very quickly because...
alcohol and caffeine stimulate gastric secretion and motility
the external anal sphincter is under voluntary control.
The two positive feedback loops involved in the defecation reflex are...
stretch receptors in rectal walls, and the sacral parasympathetic system
when you see, smell, taste, or think of food the __________ phase of gastric secretion begins.