Chapter 24: The Digestive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 24: The Digestive System Deck (67)
1

Name organs in the digestive system.

1. Liver
2. Gallbladder
3. Pancreas

2

List accessory structures of the digestive system.

1. Salivary glands
2. Pancreas
3. Liver
4. Gallbladder

3

The active process that occurs when materials enter the digestive tract via the mouth is...

ingestion

4

the lining of the digestive tract plays a defensive role by protecting surrounding tissues against...

1. corrosive effects of digestive acids and enzymes
2. mechanical stresses
3. pathogenic organisms swallowed with food

5

sympathetic stimulation of the muscularis externa promotes...

muscular inhibition and relaxation

6

the mucous-producing, unicellular glands found in the mucosal epithelium of the stomach and small and large intestine are..

mucous (goblet) cells

7

which of the layers of the digestive tube is most responsible for peristalsis along the esophagus?

muscularis externa

8

the muscular layers involved with peristalsis are described as...

circular and longitudinal

9

swirling, mixing, and churning motions of the digestive tract provide...

mechanical processing after ingestion

10

powerful peristaltic contractions moving the contents of the colon toward the rectum are called...

mass movements

11

accelerated secretions by the salivary glands, resulting in the production of watery saliva containing abundant enzymes, are promoted by...

parasympathetic stimulation

12

the submandibular glands produce saliva, which is...

both mucus and serous

13

the three pairs of salivary glands that secret into the oral cavity are the...

parotid, sublingual, and submandibular

14

crushing, mashing, and grinding food are accomplished by the action of...

bicuspids

15

the three phases of deglutition are...

buccal, pharyngeal, and esophageal

16

on its way to the esophagus, food normally passes through the...

oropharynx and laryngopharynx

17

the pharyngeal muscles that push the food bolus toard the esophagus are the...

pharyngeal constrictor muscles

18

the esophageal glands that produce a mucous secretion that reduces friction between the bolus and the esophageal lining are located in the...

submucosa

19

the primary function of the esophagus is to...

convey solid foods and liquids to the stomach

20

the inferior end of the esophagus normally remains in a state of active contraction that...

prevents backflow of materials from the stomach into the esophagus

21

the hormone gastrin...

increases the activity of parietal and chief cells

22

the release of chyme from the stomach into the duodenum is regulated by the...

pyloric sphincter

23

what inhibits gastric contractions?

1. secretin
2. somatostatin
3. distention of duodenal stretch receptors

24

what is secreted by the stomach?

somatostatin

25

the three divisions of the small intestine are...

duodenum, jejunum, and ileum

26

the myenteric plexus of the intestinal tract is found...

between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers

27

an enzyme not found in pancreatic juice is...

GIP

28

what happens to salivary amylase after it is swallowed?

it is digested and absorbed in the small intestine

29

the three phases of gastric function are...

cephalic, gastric, and intestinal

30

bile is stored and modified in the...

gallbladder

31

the primary functions of the liver are...

1. metabolic regulation
2. hematological regulation
3. bile production

32

the hormone that promotes the emptying of the gallbladder and of pancreatic juice containing enzymes is...

cholecystokinin

33

undigested food residues are moved through the large intestine in the following sequence:

cecum, colon, and rectumn

34

the longitudinal ribbon of smooth muscle visible on the outer surfaces of the colon just beneath the serosa are the...

taenia coli

35

undigested food residues are moved through the colon in the following sequence:

ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid

36

material arriving from the ileum first enters an expanded pouch called the...

cecum

37

in addition to storage of fecal material and absorption of some vitamins, an important function of the large intestine is...

reabsorption of water

38

the vitamins liberated by bacterial action and absorbed in the large intestine are...

biotin, pantothenic acid, and vitamin K

39

the organic nutrients that provide energy for the human body are...

carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins

40

the nutrients that can be absorbed without preliminary processing but may involve special transport mechanisms are...

water, electrolytes and vitamins

41

the enzyme lactase, which digest lactose to glucose and galactose, is synthesized by...

epithelial cells lining the small intestine

42

hydrochloric acid in the stomach functions primarily to...

facilitate protein digestion

43

a molecule absorbed into the lacteals of the lymphatic system within the walls of the small instestine is...

a lipid

44

the intestinal epithelium absorbs monosaccharides by...

facilitated diffusion and cotransport mechanisms

45

when two fluids are seperated by a selectively permeable membrane, water tends to flow into the solution that has the...

higher concentration of solutes

46

in the elderly, the decline in olfactory and gustatory sensitivities with age can lead to...

dietary changes that effect the entire body

47

the system that interacts with the digestive tract to control hunger, satiation, and feeding behaviors is the...

nervous system

48

the final enzymatic steps in the digestion of carbohydrates are accomplished by...

brush border enzymes of the microvilli

49

many visceral smooth muscle networks show rhythmic cycles of activity in the absence of neural stimulation due to the presence of...

pacesetter cells that spontaneously depolarize and trigger contraction of entire muscular sheets

50

a drop of pH below 4.5 in the duodenum stimulates the secretion of....

secretin

51

the stomach is divided into the following regions:

cardia, fundus, body, pylorus

52

the two factors that play an important part in controlling gastric emptying are...

stomach distention and gastrin release

53

the plicae of the intestinal mucosa, which bears the intestinal villi, are structural features that provide for...

increased total surface area for absorption

54

the enteroendocrine cells of the intestinal glands are responsible for producing the intestinal hormones...

cholecystokinin and secretin

55

most intestinal absorption occurs in the...

jejunum

56

the primary functions of the intestinal juice are to...

1. moisten the chyme
2. neutralize acid
3. dissolve digestive enzymes and products of digestion

57

an immediate increase in the rates of glandular secretion and peristaltic activity along the entire small intestine is a result of the...

gastroenteric reflex

58

one of the primary effects of secretin is to can an...

increase in secretion of buffers by the pancreas

59

the prptide hormone that causes the release of insulin from the pancreatic islets is...

GIP

60

the large intestine can be divided into three major parts, the...

cecum, colon, and rectum

61

the muscular sphincter that guards the entrance between the ileum and cecum is the...

ileocecal valve

62

the contractions that force fecal material into the rectum and produce the urge to defecate are called _________ movements.

mass

63

a large meal containing small amounts of protein, large amounts of carbohydrates, wine, and after-dinner coffee will leave your stomach very quickly because...

alcohol and caffeine stimulate gastric secretion and motility

64

the external anal sphincter is under voluntary control.

True

65

The two positive feedback loops involved in the defecation reflex are...

stretch receptors in rectal walls, and the sacral parasympathetic system

66

when you see, smell, taste, or think of food the __________ phase of gastric secretion begins.

cephalic

67

triglycerides coated with proteins create a complex known as a...

chylomicron