Chapter 17: The Special Senses Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17: The Special Senses Deck (55)
1

The two tissue layers that make up the olfactory organs are the...

olfactory epithelium and lamina propria

2

the first step in olfactory reception occurs on the exposed...

olfactory cilia

3

the ultimate destinations for interpreting the sense of smell are...

1. olfactory cortex
2. hypothalamus
3. limbic system

4

the factor that ensures that you quickly lose awareness of a new smell but retain sensitivity to others is called...

central adaptation

5

the CNS interprets smell on the basis of the particular pattern of...

receptor activity

6

although the human olfactory organs can discriminate among many smells, acuity varies widely depending on the...

nature of odorant

7

the three different types of papillae on the human tongue...

filiform, fungiform, and circumvallate

8

taste buds are monitored by cranial nerves...

VII, IX, and X

9

after synapsing in the thalamus, gustatory information is projected to the appropriate portion of the...

gustatory cortex

10

taste buds in all portions of the tongue provide all four primary taste sensations...

true

11

gustatory reception begins when dissolved chemicals contacting the taste hairs bind to receptor proteins of the,,,

gustatory cells

12

protein complexes that use second messengers to produce their gustatory effects are called...

gustducins

13

an examples of one inheirted taste sensitivity is for the compound...

phenylthiocarbamide

14

a lipid-rich product that helps to keep the eyelids from sticking together is produced by the...

tarsal glands

15

the fibrous layer, the outermost layer of covering the eye, consists of the...

sclera and cornea

16

the vascular layer consists of three distinct structures, the...

iris, ciliary body, and choroid

17

the function of the vitreous body in the eye is to...

stabilize the shape of the eye

18

the primary function of the lens of the eye is to...

focus the visual image on the retinal photoreceptors

19

when looking directly at an object, its image falls upon the portion of the retina called...

fovia centralis

20

the transparent proteins in the lens fibers, responsible for both the clarity and the focusing power of the lens, are...

crystallins

21

when photons of all wavelengths stimulate both rods and all three types of cones, the eye percieves...

"white" lights

22

axons converge on the optic disc, penetrate the wall of the eye, and proceed toward the...

diencephalon as the optic nerve

23

the perception of a visual image reflects the integration of information arriving at the...

visual cortex of the cerebrum

24

the bony labyrinth of the ear is subdivided into the...

vestibule, semicircular canals, and cochlea

25

the external ear is seperated from the middle ear by the...

tympanic membrane

26

the auditory ossicles of the middle ear include...

malleus, stapes, and incus

27

the structure in the cochlea of the internal ear that provides information to the CNS is the...

spiral organ

28

the receptors that provide the sensation of hearing are located in the...

cochlea

29

the senses of equilibrium and hearing are provided by receptors in the...

internal ear

30

ascending auditory sensations synapse in the thalamus and then are delivered by projection fibers to the auditory cortex of the...

temporal lobe

31

olfactory secretions that absorb water and form a thick, pigmented mucus are produced by...

olfactory glands

32

during the olfaction process, the first synapse occurs at the...

olfactory bulbs of the cerebrum

33

one of the few examples of neuronal replacement occurs in the_________population.

olfactory receptor

34

the tongue papillae that provide friction to move objects around in the mouth, but do not contain taste buds, are...

filiform papillae

35

the ultimate higher-order olfactory destination is the...

olfactory cortex

36

the mechanism that quickly reduces your sensitivity to a new taste is...

central adaptation

37

a taste recpetor sensitive to dissolved chemicals but insensitive to pressure illustrates the concept of...

receptor specificity

38

during the focusing process, when light travels from the air into the relatively dense cornea,...

the light path is bent

39

exposure to bright light produces a...

rapid reflexive decrease in pupillary diameter

40

the color of the eye is determined by...

the thickness of the iris and the number and distribution of pigment cells

41

in rating visual acuity, a person whose vision is rated 20/15 is better than normal since this person can...

read letters at 20 feet that are only discernible by the normal eye at 15 feet from the chart

42

after an intense exposure to light, a "ghost" image remains on the retina because a photoreceptor cannot respond to stimulation until...

its rhodopsin molecules have been regenerated

43

the role that vitamin A plays in the eye is...

the visual pigment retinal is synthesized from vitamin A

44

the reason everything appears to be shades of gray when we enter dimly lighted surroundings is...

only rods are stimulated

45

when one or more classes of cones are nonfunctional, the result is...

color blindness

46

the most detailed information about the visual image is provided by the...

cones

47

the region of the retina called the "blind spot" is an area that structurally compromises the...

optic disc

48

the partial cross-over that occurs at the optic chiasm ensures that the visual cortex receives...

a composite picture of the entire visual field

49

the waxy material that slows the growth of microorganisms in the external acoustic canal and reduces the chances of infection is...

cerumen

50

the auditory ossicles found in the middle ear resemble "tools" that would be found in a...

horse stable

51

information about the direction and strength of mechanical stimuli is provided by the...

hair cells

52

the receptors in the internal ear that provide sensations of gravity and linear acceleration are the...

saccule and utricle

53

the intensity of a percieved sound is determined by...

how many of the hair cells in the cochlear duct are stimulated

54

information about the region and intensity of auditory stimulation is relayed to the CNS over the cochlear branch of...

Optic nerve 9 (NVIII)

55

the energy content of a sound determines its intensity, which is measured in...

decibels